Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Snake Venoms Share Similar Ingredients

Date:
December 25, 2007
Source:
BioMed Central
Summary:
Venoms from different snake families may have many deadly ingredients in common, more than was previously thought. A new study has unexpectedly discovered three-finger toxins in a subspecies of the Massasauga Rattlesnake, as well as evidence for a novel toxin genes resulting from gene fusion.

Venoms from different snake families may have many deadly ingredients in common, more than was previously thought. A new study has unexpectedly discovered three-finger toxins in a subspecies of the Massasauga Rattlesnake, as well as evidence for a novel toxin genes resulting from gene fusion.

Related Articles


Susanta Pahari from National University of Singapore, Singapore (currently working at Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College, Bangalore, India) used venom glands from a rare rattlesnake that lives in arid and desert grasslands. Known as Desert Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii), this pitviper is a subspecies of the North American Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus).

Together with Stephen Mackessy from the University of Northern Colorado, USA and R. Manjunatha Kini from National University of Singapore, Singapore, Pahari constructed a cDNA library of the snake's venom gland and created 576 tagged sequences. A cocktail of recognized venom toxin sequences was detected in the library, but the venom also contained three-finger toxin-like transcripts, a family of poisons thought only to occur in another family of snakes (Elapidae).

The team also spotted a novel toxin-like transcript generated by the fusion of two individual toxin genes, a mechanism not previously observed in toxin evolution. Toxin diversity is usually the result of gene duplication and subsequently neofunctionalization is achieved through several point mutations (called accelerated evolution) on the surface of the protein. Pahari says "In addition to gene duplication, exon shuffling or transcriptional splicing may also contribute to generating the diversity of toxins and toxin isoforms observed among snake venoms."

Previously, researchers identified venom compounds using protein chemistry or individual gene cloning methods. However, less abundant toxins were often missed. The library method has now revealed new toxin genes and even new families of toxins. Taking low abundance toxins into consideration shows advanced snakes' venoms actually have a greater similarity than previously recognized.

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of pharmacologically active proteins and peptides. Treating snake venom victims can be complicated because of the variation between venoms even within snake families. Kini says "Such a diversity of toxins provides a gold mine of bioactive polypeptides, which could aid the development of novel therapeutic agents."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by BioMed Central. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Pahari et al. The venom gland transcriptome of the Desert Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii): towards an understanding of venom composition among advanced snakes (Superfamily Colubroidea). BMC Molecular Biology, 2007; 8 (1): 115 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-8-115

Cite This Page:

BioMed Central. "Snake Venoms Share Similar Ingredients." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 December 2007. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071219202946.htm>.
BioMed Central. (2007, December 25). Snake Venoms Share Similar Ingredients. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071219202946.htm
BioMed Central. "Snake Venoms Share Similar Ingredients." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071219202946.htm (accessed January 28, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Dogs Bring on So Many Different Emotions in Their Human Best Friends

Dogs Bring on So Many Different Emotions in Their Human Best Friends

RightThisMinute (Jan. 28, 2015) From new-puppy happy tears to helpful-grocery-carrying-dog laughter, our four-legged best friends can make us feel the entire spectrum of emotions. Video provided by RightThisMinute
Powered by NewsLook.com
Scientists Say Earliest Snakes Lived Alongside The Dinosaurs

Scientists Say Earliest Snakes Lived Alongside The Dinosaurs

Newsy (Jan. 28, 2015) Wrongly categorized as lizard fossils, snake fossils now show the reptile could have developed earlier than we thought — 70 million years earlier. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Malnutrition on the Rise as Violence Flares in C. Africa

Malnutrition on the Rise as Violence Flares in C. Africa

AFP (Jan. 28, 2015) Violence can flare up at any moment in Bambari with only a bridge separating Muslims and Christians. Malnutrition is on the rise and lack of water means simple cooking fires threaten to destroy makeshift camps where people are living. Duration: 00:40 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Poultry Culled in Taiwan to Thwart Bird Flu

Poultry Culled in Taiwan to Thwart Bird Flu

Reuters - News Video Online (Jan. 28, 2015) Taiwan culls over a million poultry in efforts to halt various strains of avian flu. Julie Noce reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins