Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Dietary Supplements For Horses, Dogs And Cats Need Better Regulation, New Report Says

Date:
August 22, 2008
Source:
National Academy of Sciences
Summary:
The growing use of animal dietary supplements has raised several concerns, including the safety of specific supplements and the approaches taken to determine their safeness.

The growing use of animal dietary supplements has raised several concerns, including the safety of specific supplements and the approaches taken to determine their safeness.

A new National Research Council report, requested by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, assesses whether the addition of three dietary supplements -- lutein, evening primrose oil, and garlic -- to the diets of horses, dogs, or cats may cause significant adverse health effects.

The committee that wrote the report concluded that because of inadequate data, it could not clearly define a safe upper limit for lutein, evening primrose oil, or garlic, but it could cite historical safe intakes (HSI) and estimate presumed safe intakes (PSI) based on available research findings. The committee added that current regulations addressing animal dietary supplements are in "disarray."

The report stresses that clear and precise regulations need to be established so "only safe animal dietary supplements are allowed on the market." An improved adverse event reporting system for animal dietary supplements would help, because existing systems have various deficiencies, including limited public access, passive rather than active solicitation of adverse events, and unclear discrimination of minor versus serious adverse events.

Additionally, the "generally recognized as safe" designation used for both human and animal ingredients is helpful in determining safe intake levels, but safety in humans does not guarantee safety in animals, the committee noted. For example, excess garlic intake can cause hemolytic anemia in horses, dogs, and cats, but this adverse effect has not been reported in humans.

The passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994 amended the way in which dietary supplements for humans are regulated, but FDA concluded that DSHEA should not apply for animals. As such, animal dietary supplements are typically regulated as "food" without the special consideration afforded to supplements marketed for humans. The Association of American Feed Control Officials also sanctions the ingredients used in animal feeds, which states typically use as guidelines, but it does not dictate minimum or maximum amounts of nutrients allowed in a product.

The daily PSI and HSI, given in milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg BW), determined by the committee for the three dietary supplements are:

Lutein

  • For horses, the PSI is 8.3 mg/kg BW when obtained from forage or natural sources; no data exist to support recommendations regarding supplements.
  • For dogs, the PSI is 1.8 mg/kg BW, with an HSI of 0.45 mg/kg BW.
  • For cats, the PSI is 7.2 mg/kg BW, with an HSI of 0.85 mg/kg BW.

Evening Primrose Oil

  • For horses, the PSI is 400 mg/kg BW, which assumes the intake of total fat will not exceed 23 percent of the diet, including any quantity of evening primrose oil added.
  • For dogs, the PSI is 424 mg/kg BW, which is the upper level used in clinical trials. Most likely the upper safe intake is higher than this.
  • For cats, the PSI is 391 mg/kg BW. It is also likely that cats could tolerate higher levels.

Garlic

  • For horses, the PSI is 90 mg/kg BW, with an HSI of 15 mg/kg BW.
  • For dogs, the PSI is 56 mg/kg BW; garlic has a long history of safe use as a supplement, with mean levels of 22 mg/kg BW being reported without serious adverse events.
  • For cats, there are insufficient data to support a generic recommendation that covers all garlic preparation types, and the committee was not able to establish a PSI of garlic for cats. However, mean intake levels of 17 mg/kg BW have been reported with apparently no serious adverse events.

The study was sponsored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council make up the National Academies. They are private, nonprofit institutions that provide science, technology, and health policy advice under a congressional charter. The Research Council is the principal operating agency of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. A committee roster follows.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by National Academy of Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

National Academy of Sciences. "Dietary Supplements For Horses, Dogs And Cats Need Better Regulation, New Report Says." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 August 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080821164256.htm>.
National Academy of Sciences. (2008, August 22). Dietary Supplements For Horses, Dogs And Cats Need Better Regulation, New Report Says. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080821164256.htm
National Academy of Sciences. "Dietary Supplements For Horses, Dogs And Cats Need Better Regulation, New Report Says." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080821164256.htm (accessed August 1, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Friday, August 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Visitors Feel Part of the Pack at Wolf Preserve

Visitors Feel Part of the Pack at Wolf Preserve

AP (July 31, 2014) Seacrest Wolf Preserve on the northern Florida panhandle allows more than 10,000 visitors each year to get up close and personal with Arctic and British Columbian Wolves. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Florida Panther Rebound Upsets Ranchers

Florida Panther Rebound Upsets Ranchers

AP (July 31, 2014) With Florida's panther population rebounding, some ranchers complain the protected predators are once again killing their calves. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

AP (July 31, 2014) Sarasota County, Florida health officials have issued a warning against eating raw oysters and exposing open wounds to coastal and inland waters after a dangerous bacteria killed one person and made another sick. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Thousands Flocking to German Crop Circle

Raw: Thousands Flocking to German Crop Circle

AP (July 30, 2014) Thousands of people are trekking to a Bavarian farmer's field to check out a mysterious set of crop circles. (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins