Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Breeding Elongated Grapes

Date:
February 17, 2009
Source:
American Society for Horticultural Science
Summary:
Round, oblong, and in-between: the shapes of the fruits we eat are not always coincidental or, for that matter, thanks to nature. Scientists investigated how to characterize shape variation and how to find genetic markers that could help breeders produce elongated grapes without waiting years to see the actual fruit on the vine.

Digital analysis is used to characterize the shapes of grapes.
Credit: Photo by John R. Clark

Round, oblong, and in-between: the shapes of the fruits we eat are not always coincidental or, for that matter, thanks to nature. Before fruit arrives in local groceries, a lot of time and effort may have gone into creating the varieties found in the produce section.

Related Articles


In the mid-1960s, Dr. James N. Moore of the University of Arkansas began a grape breeding program, working toward developing varieties with elongated shapes. Now, 40 years later, Dr. John R. Clark continues this effort. One of these unique-shaped developments has been researched further, first to characterize the shape variation, with subsequent work to find genetic markers that could help breeders produce elongated grapes without waiting years to see the actual fruit on the vine.

Classifying fruit as elongated or other shapes can be challenging, as visual observations can be highly subjective and ratings often variable among observers.

Recently, a digital method for analyzing shapes has been used for tomatoes, but this method requires each fruit to be cut in half and scanned to take the measurements, making the fruit unusable for additional studies or for eating.

Another digital analysis method, called SigmaScan®, is in use at the University of Arkansas' turfgrass science program. SigmaScan® selects colors within a given range of a photograph to analyze turf quality mechanically, eliminating human error.

The university's fruit breeding program borrowed this technology for a study of grape shapes led by Clark and graduate student Andrew P. Wycislo. The study, published in the American Society for Horticultural Science journal HortScience, began with digital photos of grapes developed specifically for the project. The seedlings exhibited wide variation of shape—from round to very elongated. Using a special application of the SigmaScan® technology that measures the area of the grape by differentiating it from the background color, calculations were made about the shape of each grape. Every grape was also manually rated based on elongation.

"Visual inspection supported the SigmaScan® analysis," reported the researchers.

The grapes used for the study were frozen at the time of harvest and did not need to be thawed or cut to be photographed. Ten grapes were photographed at one time, but more grapes could be shot and studied in a single photo in the future to further the speed of study. In this way, SigmaScan® improves efficiency, and because the fruit is still intact, it can also be used for additional studies or consumption.

This method has potential for future breeders by helping them to select grapes based on degree of elongation, and can also be applied to studies of other fruits. Although none of the elongated grapes have been released for public use as yet, it is hoped that in the future these new and unique grapes will be an addition to the expanding fresh fruit profile for American consumers.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Horticultural Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Society for Horticultural Science. "Breeding Elongated Grapes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 February 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090217125542.htm>.
American Society for Horticultural Science. (2009, February 17). Breeding Elongated Grapes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 19, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090217125542.htm
American Society for Horticultural Science. "Breeding Elongated Grapes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090217125542.htm (accessed December 19, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Friday, December 19, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Navy Unveils Robot Fish

Navy Unveils Robot Fish

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Dec. 18, 2014) — The U.S. Navy unveils an underwater device that mimics the movement of a fish. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Kids Die While Under Protective Services

Kids Die While Under Protective Services

AP (Dec. 18, 2014) — As part of a six-month investigation of child maltreatment deaths, the AP found that hundreds of deaths from horrific abuse and neglect could have been prevented. AP's Haven Daley reports. (Dec. 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
When You Lose Weight, This Is Where The Fat Goes

When You Lose Weight, This Is Where The Fat Goes

Newsy (Dec. 17, 2014) — Can fat disappear into thin air? New research finds that during weight loss, over 80 percent of a person's fat molecules escape through the lungs. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Hottest Food Trends for 2015

The Hottest Food Trends for 2015

Buzz60 (Dec. 17, 2014) — Urbanspoon predicts whicg food trends will dominate the culinary scene in 2015. Mara Montalbano (@maramontalbano) has the story. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins