Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Apples grow larger when cells don't divide, study shows

Date:
July 1, 2010
Source:
Purdue University
Summary:
Horticultural experts found that an anomaly in some Gala apple trees causes some apples to grow much larger than others because cells aren't splitting. The findings showed that the new variety, called Grand Gala, is about 38 percent heavier and has a diameter 15 percent larger than regular Galas.

Grand Gala apples, at right, undergo endoreduplication, which causes cells to grow larger than in the regular Gala apples, at left.
Credit: Purdue University photo/Peter Hirst

Fast-food restaurants can supersize French fries and drinks, but Mother Nature has found a way to supersize a type of apple.

Peter Hirst, a Purdue University associate professor of horticulture, found that an anomaly in some Gala apple trees causes some apples to grow much larger than others because cells aren't splitting. The findings, reported in the current issue of the Journal of Experimental Botany, showed that the new variety, called Grand Gala, is about 38 percent heavier and has a diameter 15 percent larger than regular Galas.

"It's never been found in apples before," Hirst said. "This is an oddball phenomenon in the apple world."

Hirst is trying to understand what causes the difference in the size of apples -- for instance, why Gala apples are so much larger than crabapples.

"There is real incentive for fruit growers to increase the size of their apples," Hirst said. "At 125 apples per bushel, a grower gets 8 cents per apple. But if they have larger apples -- 88 per bushel -- the price more than doubles."

Since different apple varieties don't always have the same genes controlling the same functions, comparing Galas to crabapples isn't an easy way to understand the mechanisms that control their destined sizes. But the Grand Gala seemed like it might provide an opportunity to unravel the mystery.

"The way the Grand Gala was found was that someone in an orchard full of Gala trees noticed that one branch had different-sized apples than the rest of the tree. They grafted new trees from this branch to started a new tree," Hirst said. "These are just chance events."

Larger apples tend to have more cells than their smaller counterparts, so Hirst theorized that there was a gene or genes that kept cell division turned on in Grand Gala. Instead, he found that Grand Gala had about the same number of cells as a regular Gala, but those cells were larger.

Normally, cells make a copy of their DNA, grow and then split. Each of those cells continues the process. Through a phenomenon called endoreduplication, the cells in Grand Gala make copies of their DNA, but don't divide. Instead, the cells grow, add more copies of the DNA and continue that growth.

The Grand Gala fruit has the same core size, so the added size and weight is in the meat, or cortex, of the fruit. Hirst said they're also crunchier and tend to taste better.

Hirst's study found that one or more of a handful of genes is likely responsible for the endoreduplication. And while it may be possible to isolate those genes and find ways to increase the size of other apples, Hirst said it's unlikely.

"You won't see Grand Galas in the grocery store," Hirst said. "Consumers like shiny, perfect-looking apples. Grand Galas are slightly lopsided. They're good eating apples, but the end product isn't something that consumers are used to seeing at the store."

He said the apples are likely to gain more of a following at apple orchards where they're grown.

Hirst will continue studying what causes different apples to be different sizes, but he won't pursue endoreduplication as an answer, he said. Purdue University funded his research.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Purdue University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. A. Malladi, P. M. Hirst. Increase in fruit size of a spontaneous mutant of 'Gala' apple (Malusxdomestica Borkh.) is facilitated by altered cell production and enhanced cell size. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2010; 61 (11): 3003 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erq134

Cite This Page:

Purdue University. "Apples grow larger when cells don't divide, study shows." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 July 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100630111047.htm>.
Purdue University. (2010, July 1). Apples grow larger when cells don't divide, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100630111047.htm
Purdue University. "Apples grow larger when cells don't divide, study shows." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100630111047.htm (accessed October 20, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Monday, October 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

White Lion Cubs Born in Belgrade Zoo

White Lion Cubs Born in Belgrade Zoo

AFP (Oct. 20, 2014) Two white lion cubs, an extremely rare subspecies of the African lion, were recently born at Belgrade Zoo. They are being bottle fed by zoo keepers after they were rejected by their mother after birth. Duration: 00:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

AFP (Oct. 20, 2014) He is leading a one man agricultural revolution in Mali - Oumar Diatabe uses traditional farming methods to get the most out of his land and is teaching others across the country how to do the same. Duration: 01:44 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Goliath Spider Will Give You Nightmares

Goliath Spider Will Give You Nightmares

Buzz60 (Oct. 20, 2014) An entomologist stumbled upon a South American Goliath Birdeater. With a name like that, you know it's a terrifying creepy crawler. Sean Dowling (@SeanDowlingTV) has the details. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Adorable Video of Baby Rhino and Lamb Friend Playing

Adorable Video of Baby Rhino and Lamb Friend Playing

Buzz60 (Oct. 20, 2014) Gertjie the Rhino and Lammie the Lamb are teaching the world about animal conservation and friendship. TC Newman (@PurpleTCNewman) has the adorable video! Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins