Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New insights into predator/prey relationships

Date:
April 10, 2011
Source:
University of Notre Dame
Summary:
Predator/prey relationships are much more complex than originally thought, according to new research.

Researchers working. New research demonstrated that grasshopper behavior changed with the threat of predators, reducing grasshopper feeding, and this was apparent at all grasshopper densities.
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Notre Dame

For those old enough to remember Mutual of Omaha's "Wild Kingdom" television series, the dynamics of predator-prey relationships seemed clear enough: predators thinned out prey populations, which enabled a smaller, but stronger, population to survive and reproduce.

However, a new paper by University of Notre Dame biologist Gary Belovsky appearing in the journal Ecology Letters suggests that predator-prey relationships are much more complex than originally thought.

The paper arose out of pioneering studies Belovsky, who also is director of the Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC), has been conducting on grasshopper populations since 1978 at Montana's National Bison Range, now a location for one of UNDERC's national undergraduate programs.

Belovsky conducted an experiment to examine how behavioral responses of grasshoppers to avian predators affected grasshopper survival and reproduction at different grasshopper population densities. A series of cages containing grasshoppers were enclosed within a tent constructed of aviary netting, creating a "no threat" area because its design prevented birds from approaching the cages and "scarring" the grasshoppers. A second set of cages provided a "threat" area because it was not enclosed in a tent, which allowed birds to feed around the cages, perch on top consuming grasshoppers caught outside the cages and "scare" the grasshoppers inside the cages.

The research demonstrated that grasshopper behavior changed with the threat of predators, reducing grasshopper feeding, and this was apparent at all grasshopper densities. The behavioral changes with the threat of predation increased survival at low grasshopper densities, as reduced feeding made food available to more individuals, while the changes decreased survival at higher densities, as severe food shortages were made worse by reduced feeding. However, the behavioral changes decreased per capita reproduction over all grasshopper population densities, as grasshoppers traded off survival and reproduction as competition among the grasshoppers increased with greater population densities.

This type of variable response is generally overlooked when prey behavioral changes with predation are considered in how predation affects prey populations," Belovsky said. "Resource availability may need to be considered when assessing how prey behavioral changes with predation threat affect population and food web dynamics."

Belovsky also notes that the new paper reinforces the importance of his western prairie research, which is now the longest running experimental study at a site examining what controls grasshopper populations. Although it isn't feasible to conduct a population study like this with populations of larger animals, such as elk and wolves in far-flung areas such as Alaska, the more easily observable field work with grasshoppers and birds offers important predator-prey insights that can be applied to these types of populations.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Notre Dame. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Gary E. Belovsky, Angela Nardoni Laws, Jennifer B. Slade. Prey change behaviour with predation threat, but demographic effects vary with prey density: experiments with grasshoppers and birds. Ecology Letters, 2011; 14 (4): 335 DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01591.x

Cite This Page:

University of Notre Dame. "New insights into predator/prey relationships." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 April 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110408114358.htm>.
University of Notre Dame. (2011, April 10). New insights into predator/prey relationships. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110408114358.htm
University of Notre Dame. "New insights into predator/prey relationships." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110408114358.htm (accessed August 20, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Newsy (Aug. 19, 2014) Scientists have developed a new device that mimics the way octopuses blend in with their surroundings to hide from dangerous predators. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Disquieting Times for Malaysia's 'fish Listeners'

Disquieting Times for Malaysia's 'fish Listeners'

AFP (Aug. 19, 2014) Malaysia's last "fish listeners" -- practitioners of a dying local art of listening underwater to locate their quarry -- try to keep the ancient technique alive in the face of industrial trawling and the depletion of stocks. Duration: 02:29 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
USDA Cracks Down On Imports From Foreign Puppy Mills

USDA Cracks Down On Imports From Foreign Puppy Mills

Newsy (Aug. 18, 2014) New USDA measures to regulate dog imports aim to crack down on buying dogs from overseas puppy mills. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Bone Marrow Drug Regrows Hair In Some Alopecia Patients

Bone Marrow Drug Regrows Hair In Some Alopecia Patients

Newsy (Aug. 18, 2014) Researchers performed an experiment using an FDA-approved drug known as ruxolitinib. They found it to be successful in the majority of patients. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins