Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Resistant mice provide clues about successful immune response to retroviruses

Date:
June 30, 2011
Source:
Cell Press
Summary:
A new study identifies a key virus-sensing mechanism that is necessary for a successful immune response against infection with a particularly deadly type of virus.

Although our body's defense mechanisms are usually capable of detecting and destroying many types of pathogens, some viruses are able to evade the immune system and make us sick. In particular, "retroviruses," such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are notorious for eluding host immune defenses and causing disease.

Now, a new study published by Cell Press online on June 30th in the journal Immunity identifies a key virus-sensing mechanism that is necessary for a successful immune response against infection with this particularly deadly type of virus. The research may help to guide the future design of more effective antiretroviral vaccines.

"The demand for producing highly efficient vaccines against HIV is great and the approaches currently available for making vaccines may not be relevant to retroviruses, as none of the trials conducted to date have been successful," explains the senior study author, Dr. Tatyana V. Golovkina, from the University of Chicago. "It is critical that we achieve a basic understanding of how the immune system detects and responds to retroviruses in order to apply this knowledge to the production of anti-retrovirus vaccines."

To examine exactly what steps in the viral invasion and replication (copying) process are necessary and sufficient to trigger a successful virus-specific immune response in the host, Dr. Golovkina and colleagues used special strains of mice that are resistant to retroviruses. The mice used in the study become infected when exposed to retrovirus, but mount a powerful antivirus immune response that eliminates or controls the virus, making them a superior choice for studies examining successful antiretroviral immunity. The researchers discovered that of all the steps in the viral replication process, the ability to enter the host cell was sufficient to induce successful immune responses. In fact, complete viral replication was dispensable for triggering virus detection. A protein called endosomal Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), known for a role in the detection of viral single-chain RNA, was identified as the critical retrovirus-sensing receptor.

Taken together, the findings suggest that an efficient and sustained immune response to retroviruses is induced by sensing of the early stages of retroviral infection. "Although the precise mechanism of retroviral exposure to TLR7 is yet to be identified, our results provide definitive evidence that TLR7-dependent recognition is required for an efficient immune response against retroviruses," concludes Dr. Golovkina. "An understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying retroviral resistance will help to drive design anti-retroviral vaccines that utilize inactivated viruses combined with targeting the immune pathways employed successfully in resistant organisms."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Melissa Kane, Laure K. Case, Christine Wang, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Stanislav Dikiy, Tatyana V. Golovkina. Innate Immune Sensing of Retroviral Infection via Toll-like Receptor 7 Occurs upon Viral Entry. Immunity, 30 June 2011 DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.05.011

Cite This Page:

Cell Press. "Resistant mice provide clues about successful immune response to retroviruses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 June 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110630122005.htm>.
Cell Press. (2011, June 30). Resistant mice provide clues about successful immune response to retroviruses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110630122005.htm
Cell Press. "Resistant mice provide clues about successful immune response to retroviruses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110630122005.htm (accessed August 30, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, August 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) A new study suggests 100 percent of adult humans (those over 18 years of age) have Demodex mites living in their faces. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Liberia Continues Fight Against Ebola

Liberia Continues Fight Against Ebola

AFP (Aug. 30, 2014) Authorities in Liberia try to stem the spread of the Ebola epidemic by raising awareness and setting up sanitation units for people to wash their hands. Duration: 00:41 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
California Passes 'yes-Means-Yes' Campus Sexual Assault Bill

California Passes 'yes-Means-Yes' Campus Sexual Assault Bill

Reuters - US Online Video (Aug. 30, 2014) California lawmakers pass a bill requiring universities to adopt "affirmative consent" language in their definitions of consensual sex, part of a nationwide drive to curb sexual assault on campuses. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
3 Things To Know About The Ebola Outbreak's Progression

3 Things To Know About The Ebola Outbreak's Progression

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) Here are three things you need to know about the deadly Ebola outbreak's progression this week. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins