Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Chromosome number changes in yeast

Date:
July 25, 2011
Source:
Public Library of Science
Summary:
Researchers in Ireland have uncovered the evolutionary mechanisms that have caused increases or decreases in the numbers of chromosomes in a group of yeast species during the last 100-150 million years. The study offers an unprecedented view of chromosome complement (chromosome number) changes in a large group of related species.

Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have uncovered the evolutionary mechanisms that have caused increases or decreases in the numbers of chromosomes in a group of yeast species during the last 100-150 million years. The study, to be published on July 21st in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, offers an unprecedented view of chromosome complement (chromosome number) changes in a large group of related species.

A few specific cases of chromosome number changes have been studied in plants and animals, for example the fusion of two great ape chromosomes that gave rise to chromosome 2 in humans, giving humans a chromosome count of 23 pairs compared to 24 pairs in great apes. The family of yeasts studied in this new research spans a similar evolutionary distance to that of vertebrates. The availability of completely sequenced genomes facilitated the reconstruction of ancestral genome structures at different evolutionary time points. Tracing the positions of essential parts of chromosomes (centromeres and telomeres) through time allowed for the identification of specific genome rearrangement events that resulted in chromosome complement changes.

The addition of large numbers of genes is not often tolerated by cells, and neither are deletions of large numbers of genes. This restricts the types of possible changes in chromosome complement to rearrangements of genes on chromosomes that maintain the same number of genes.

The researchers show that, in yeasts, chromosome complement has decreased in all except one notable event, a whole genome duplication -- an event that doubled the complement of an ancestor of several of the species from 8 chromosomes to 16. The decreases in chromosome number were mostly by the fusion of whole chromosomes, similar to the one that gave rise to chromosome 2 in humans. One exception to this mechanism was the breakage of a chromosome and the subsequent fusion of the two broken edges to two different chromosome ends.

Although some aspects of the research are specific to yeast, many of the mechanisms of chromosome number change in yeast are similar to those found in other organisms and therefore shed light on how chromosome complements evolve.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Public Library of Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Gordon JL, Byrne KP, Wolfe KH. Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7 (7): e1002190 DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pgen.1002190

Cite This Page:

Public Library of Science. "Chromosome number changes in yeast." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 July 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721172332.htm>.
Public Library of Science. (2011, July 25). Chromosome number changes in yeast. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721172332.htm
Public Library of Science. "Chromosome number changes in yeast." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721172332.htm (accessed July 30, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Raw: Otters Enjoy Water Slides at Japan Zoo

Raw: Otters Enjoy Water Slides at Japan Zoo

AP (July 30, 2014) River otters were hitting the water slides to beat the summer heatwave on Wednesday at Ichikawa City's Zoological and Botanical Garden. (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
In Virginia, the Rise of a New Space Coast

In Virginia, the Rise of a New Space Coast

AP (July 30, 2014) Every summer, tourists make the pilgrimage to Chincoteague Island, Va. to see wild ponies cross the Assateague Channel. But, it's the rockets sending to supplies to the International Space Station that are making this a year-round destination. (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Rodents Rampant in Gardens Around Louvre

Rodents Rampant in Gardens Around Louvre

AP (July 29, 2014) Food scraps and other items left on the grounds by picnickers brings unwelcome visitors to the grounds of the world famous and popular Louvre Museum in Paris. (July 29) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Jane Goodall Warns Great Apes Face Extinction

Jane Goodall Warns Great Apes Face Extinction

AFP (July 29, 2014) The world's great apes face extinction within decades, renowned chimpanzee expert Jane Goodall warned Tuesday in a call to arms to ensure man's closest relatives are not wiped out. Duration: 00:58 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins