Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Biological interactions make some malaria parasites specific to host species

Date:
December 2, 2013
Source:
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Summary:
Researchers have discovered why the parasite that causes the deadliest form of malaria only infects humans.

A team recently showed that the interaction between a parasite protein called RH5 and a receptor called basigin was essentially required for the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite that causes the deadliest form of malaria. Now, they've discovered that this same interaction is also an important factor in explaining why the parasite seems to be remarkably specific to humans. This research will help guide eradication strategies in regions where malariais endemic.

There are several distinct species of parasite that cause malaria. The malaria parasite species responsible for severe illness and death, Plasmodium falciparum, only infects humans, but is closely related to several species that infect chimpanzees and gorillas. Strangely, these species seem to be very specific -- individual species appear to infect only humans, chimpanzees or gorillas, even when these primates live in close proximity. This striking observation piqued the curiosity of the team which prompted a search for the molecules that controls this specificity and revealed the important role of the RH5-basigin interaction.

"It's remarkable that the interaction of a single pair of proteins can explain why the most deadly form of malaria is specific to humans" says Dr Julian Rayner, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Malaria Programme. "This research will strengthen eradication strategies by ruling out great apes as possible reservoirs of human infection by P. falciparum."

The team investigated the question of host specificity by examining two important protein interactions involved in the invasion of red blood cells -- the interactions between the parasite and host EBA175-Glycophorin A and RH5-basigin.

They found that the EBA175 protein from chimpanzee specific malaria parasites could bind to human Glycophorin A, thereby ruling out this interaction as a specificity factor.

However, the RH5 protein from P falciparum did not bind to the gorilla basigin protein and only bound extremely weakly to chimpanzee basigin. Therefore, the species specificity of this interaction mirrored the known infection profile of P. falciparum and provided a molecular explanation for why P. falciparum only infects humans.

"This interaction seems to explain why P. falciparum only infects people and not apes," says Professor Beatrice Hahn, author from the University of Pennsylvania. "This may also be an important guiding factor in the development of eradication strategies for the elimination of P. falciparum in endemic areas."

Until recently, studying protein interactions between the malaria parasite and great apes has been challenging. Both chimpanzees and gorillas are protected species and so obtaining blood samples that would help answer these questions is incredibly difficult.

"Today, we can produce these proteins synthetically in the laboratory to avoid the use of blood samples from endangered animals," says Dr Gavin Wright, lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "In time, these scientific advances will lead to improved treatments, eradication strategies and, vaccine development for one of the world's major health problems."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. M. Wanaguru, W. Liu, B. H. Hahn, J. C. Rayner, G. J. Wright. RH5-Basigin interaction plays a major role in the host tropism of Plasmodium falciparum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1320771110

Cite This Page:

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Biological interactions make some malaria parasites specific to host species." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 December 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131202161954.htm>.
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (2013, December 2). Biological interactions make some malaria parasites specific to host species. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131202161954.htm
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Biological interactions make some malaria parasites specific to host species." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131202161954.htm (accessed October 2, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Pregnancy Spacing Could Have Big Impact On Autism Risks

Pregnancy Spacing Could Have Big Impact On Autism Risks

Newsy (Oct. 1, 2014) A new study says children born less than one year and more than five years after a sibling can have an increased risk for autism. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Robotic Hair Restoration

Robotic Hair Restoration

Ivanhoe (Oct. 1, 2014) A new robotic procedure is changing the way we transplant hair. The ARTAS robot leaves no linear scarring and provides more natural results. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Insertable Cardiac Monitor

Insertable Cardiac Monitor

Ivanhoe (Oct. 1, 2014) A heart monitor the size of a paperclip that can save your life. The “Reveal Linq” allows a doctor to monitor patients with A-Fib on a continuous basis for up to 3 years! Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Attacking Superbugs

Attacking Superbugs

Ivanhoe (Oct. 1, 2014) Two weapons hospitals can use to attack superbugs. Scientists in Ireland created a new gel resistant to superbugs, and a robot that can disinfect a room in minutes. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins