Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Fighting for oral dominance: Good fungi keep bad ones in check in healthy mouths

Date:
March 13, 2014
Source:
PLOS
Summary:
Human mouths contain a balanced mix of microbes which, when disrupted, can lead to oral diseases. A new study compares the bacteria and fungi present in the mouths of healthy individuals with those from patients infected with HIV and illustrates why oral candidiasis (aka 'thrush') is a common complication of HIV infection.

Treatment of mice with Pichia spent medium reduces the extent of tissue invasion by Candida (see arrows) in the tongue. This image shows (A) untreated and (B) Pichia spent medium treated mice tissue.
Credit: Mahmoud Ghannoum; Creative Commons Attribution license

Human mouths contain a balanced mix of microbes which, when disrupted, can lead to oral diseases. A study published on March 13th in PLOS Pathogens compares the bacteria and fungi present in the mouths of healthy individuals with those from patients infected with HIV, and illustrates why oral candidiasis (aka "thrush") is a common complication of HIV infection.

Using high-throughput gene sequencing, Mahmoud Ghannoum, from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, USA, and colleagues catalogued the core oral bacteriome (the bacteria commonly present) and the core oral mycobiome (the fungi commonly present). They found little difference in the bacteria between healthy individuals and those infected with HIV (whose immune systems are compromised). In contrast, they saw clear and consistent differences in the oral fungi between both groups.

A family of fungi called Candida was predominant in both groups, but present at higher levels in HIV-infected individuals. A second one, called Pichia, was present at fairly high levels in the mouths of healthy individuals but only at lower levels in people who were infected with HIV. This led the researchers to speculate that there was an antagonism between the two. And indeed, when they grew Pichia alone in a liquid medium and then filtered the fungus out, the "Pichia spent medium" (or PSM) was able to suppress the growth of Candida as well as several other disease-causing fungi.

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in patients with HIV/AIDS, and even in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy, it compromises the quality of life of many patients. Making use of a mouse model of oral candidiasis, the researchers were able to show that mice treated with PSM had much less severe symptoms compared with untreated ones. Therefore, at least in this animal model, Pichia's antagonism of Candida can suppress oral candidiasis.

The authors say, "Our findings have wide implications regarding the discovery of novel antifungal agents and will open the way to new therapeutic approaches for the management of fungal infections." They continue , "Detailed investigations are warranted to purify and characterize the specific Pichia factor(s) that can inhibit Candida and other disease-causing fungi."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by PLOS. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Pranab K. Mukherjee, Jyotsna Chandra, Mauricio Retuerto, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Robert E. Brown, Richard Jurevic, Robert A. Salata, Michael M. Lederman, Patrick M. Gillevet, Mahmoud A. Ghannoum. Oral Mycobiome Analysis of HIV-Infected Patients: Identification of Pichia as an Antagonist of Opportunistic Fungi. PLoS Pathogens, 2014; 10 (3): e1003996 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996

Cite This Page:

PLOS. "Fighting for oral dominance: Good fungi keep bad ones in check in healthy mouths." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313173505.htm>.
PLOS. (2014, March 13). Fighting for oral dominance: Good fungi keep bad ones in check in healthy mouths. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313173505.htm
PLOS. "Fighting for oral dominance: Good fungi keep bad ones in check in healthy mouths." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313173505.htm (accessed September 16, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

President To Send 3,000 Military Personnel To Fight Ebola

President To Send 3,000 Military Personnel To Fight Ebola

Newsy (Sep. 16, 2014) President Obama is expected to send 3,000 troops to West Africa as part of the effort to contain Ebola's spread. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Man Floats for 31 Hours in Gulf Waters

Man Floats for 31 Hours in Gulf Waters

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) A Texas man is lucky to be alive after he and three others floated for more than a day in the Gulf of Mexico when their boat sank during a fishing trip. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

AFP (Sep. 15, 2014) The European Commission met on Monday to coordinate aid that the EU can offer to African countries affected by the Ebola outbreak. Duration: 00:58 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Newsy (Sep. 15, 2014) A new study finds children are prescribed antibiotics twice as often as is necessary. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

    Technology News



    Save/Print:
    Share:

    Free Subscriptions


    Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

    Get Social & Mobile


    Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

    Have Feedback?


    Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
    Mobile: iPhone Android Web
    Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
    Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
    Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins