Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Involvement of gene in lentivirus infections of sheep, goats has been established

Date:
April 30, 2014
Source:
Elhuyar Fundazioa
Summary:
The mechanism of the action of the small ruminant lentivirus, a type of virus in the same family as HIV and which infects sheep and goat species, has been studied in a new doctoral thesis. Lentiviruses are viruses responsible for slow infections that damage the immune system and which cause a range of clinical symptoms (nervous, pulmonary, arthritic and mammary).

In her PhD thesis, Helena Crespo-Otano has studied the mechanism of the action of the small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), a type of virus in the same family as HIV and which infects sheep and goat species. Lentiviruses are viruses responsible for slow infections that damage the immune system and which cause a range of clinical symptoms (nervous, pulmonary, arthritic and mammary). The thesis is entitled "Papel del receptor de la manosa y de la polarización de macrófagos en la infección por lentivirus de pequeños rumiantes" [Role of the mannose receptor and the polarization of macrophages due to lentivirus infection in small ruminants].

In her work, she identified and characterised the ovine mannose receptor (MR), a cell receptor involved in the infectious process when the virus is allowed to penetrate the cells of the animals. The target cells of these lentiviruses are the macrophages. These cells are capable of modifying their genetic expression depending on the external stimuli they are exposed to (which is known as polarisation), so that they can adapt their function to the one-off needs of the organism and are, therefore, a key component in the development of a beneficial immune response for the individual.

As Helena Crespo explained, "what is observed in the flocks infected by the small ruminant lentivirus is a fall in productivity, an increase in mortality caused by secondary infections, and premature culling (the livestock are separated from the flock) of the infected animals, which leads to an increase in the restocking rate in the flock and considerable economic losses."

Mannose receptor

Right now, there are no effective vaccines or treatments to combat infections of this type, so innate immunity factors are being studied as an effective alternative to treat or prevent these infections. "The cells of the immune system, like the macrophages, have mechanisms to counteract the infection. For example, in their membranes they have so-called pathogen pattern recognition receptors, which enable them to recognise and neutralise them," pointed out the researcher. Specifically, the so-called MR (mannose receptor) could be a "safe" door of entry for certain bacteria, protozoa, parasites and viruses like SRLVs into the target cell, which would encourage infection and the development of associated pathologies.

In this context, the thesis deals in depth with hitherto unknown aspects of infection by small ruminant leniviruses."We have identified and characterised the ovine MR gene and have determined its involvement in the entry of the virus into the cells that express it." The author of the work studied the role played by this molecule in the development of various pathologies associated with infection. So "after analysing the MR expression in 124 tissue samples from 31 animals, we saw that there was a greater expression of the mannose receptor in the more affected organs." Firstly, the existence of differentiated populations of macrophages was demonstrated in sheep and goats, the so-called M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory), which have opposite restrictive capacities over lentiviruses. Furthermore, it was observed that the infection induces M2 polarisation, which favours the establishing and evolution of the disease, opening up the possibility of identifying new therapeutic targets to combat lentiviral infections.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Elhuyar Fundazioa. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Elhuyar Fundazioa. "Involvement of gene in lentivirus infections of sheep, goats has been established." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 April 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140430133145.htm>.
Elhuyar Fundazioa. (2014, April 30). Involvement of gene in lentivirus infections of sheep, goats has been established. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140430133145.htm
Elhuyar Fundazioa. "Involvement of gene in lentivirus infections of sheep, goats has been established." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140430133145.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

White Lion Cubs Born in Belgrade Zoo

White Lion Cubs Born in Belgrade Zoo

AFP (Oct. 20, 2014) — Two white lion cubs, an extremely rare subspecies of the African lion, were recently born at Belgrade Zoo. They are being bottle fed by zoo keepers after they were rejected by their mother after birth. Duration: 00:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

Traditional Farming Methods Gaining Ground in Mali

AFP (Oct. 20, 2014) — He is leading a one man agricultural revolution in Mali - Oumar Diatabe uses traditional farming methods to get the most out of his land and is teaching others across the country how to do the same. Duration: 01:44 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Goliath Spider Will Give You Nightmares

Goliath Spider Will Give You Nightmares

Buzz60 (Oct. 20, 2014) — An entomologist stumbled upon a South American Goliath Birdeater. With a name like that, you know it's a terrifying creepy crawler. Sean Dowling (@SeanDowlingTV) has the details. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Adorable Video of Baby Rhino and Lamb Friend Playing

Adorable Video of Baby Rhino and Lamb Friend Playing

Buzz60 (Oct. 20, 2014) — Gertjie the Rhino and Lammie the Lamb are teaching the world about animal conservation and friendship. TC Newman (@PurpleTCNewman) has the adorable video! Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins