Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

A vote for cooperation: Research suggests voting may be key to cooperation with future generations

Date:
June 25, 2014
Source:
Harvard University
Summary:
Using a series of public goods 'games,' researchers have demonstrated that allowing people to vote on the harvesting of resources encouraged more people to preserve resources for future generations.

Whatever the solutions to preserving our world's natural resources might be, it seems clear that answers won't come overnight. How, then, can we be sure the steps we take today won't jeopardize the fate of future generations?

Related Articles


The answer, researchers say, may lie with one of cornerstones of modern society -- democracy.

Using a series of modified public goods "games," Professor of Mathematics and of Biology, and Director of the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics Martin Nowak, Assistant Professor of Psychology and Economics at Yale David Rand, and their colleagues demonstrated that allowing people to vote on the harvesting of resources led to the preservation of these resources for future generations. The study is described in a June 26 paper published in Nature.

"There has been a great deal of work on how people cooperate with those they see every day -- their colleagues or friends," Nowak said. "But an open question is how people cooperate with future generations. How do you make altruistic decisions today that benefit people tomorrow?"

To study cooperation across generations, Nowak and Rand worked with doctoral student Oliver Hauser and post-doctoral researcher Alexander Peysakhovich to develop a unique version of the commonly-used public good game in which five online players were tasked with dividing 100 units of a resource between them.

Each player was allowed to collect up to 20 units of the resource. As long as all players together harvested up to half of the 100 units, the resource was replenished for subsequent generations -- other players who would be recruited later. If players harvested more than half, however, the resource was exhausted, and subsequent players earned nothing while being told that earlier generations hadn't acted sustainably.

Though clearly designed to encourage players to preserve resources for subsequent generations, when Nowak and Rand began recruiting players, they found a curious result -- in nearly every game, players quickly exhausted the resource.

"Typically, the way it played out was four players acted generously, while one person chose maximum defection," Nowak said.

Though the test revealed many people might be willing to pay some costs to benefit future generations, it also highlighted a problem with what researchers call "conditional cooperation," which suggests people are only willing to cooperate if they believe others are doing the same. Often, Rand and Nowak said, players who chose to maximize their own benefit did so because they feared other players were taking a larger share of the resource.

"In some sense, this illustrates why the free market fails to solve problems like climate change," Nowak added. "Even if you want to cooperate with the future, you may not do so because you are afraid of being exploited by the present."

To ward off that problem, Nowak and Rand re-wrote the rules of the game to allow each player to vote on how much of the resource to extract, and giving each player the median of all five votes.

"Democracy is a powerful institution," Nowak explained. "When we implemented this system, virtually every resource was saved. The surprising observation is that while there is a minority of people who don't want to cooperate, the majority of people vote altruistically. They are not voting to maximize their own benefit, and that's what allows for cooperation with the future."

Importantly, Nowak and Rand said, for the voting system to work, the winning extraction amount had to be the median of all the votes cast.

"Another way to implement a voting system would be to extract the average of all the votes, but the problem with that system is it forces people to vote strategically," Rand explained. "You may be willing to harvest the resource sustainably, but if you think someone else is going all in, you have to vote for zero to balance out the average. If instead you use the median of the votes, then players can just vote for what they really want."

The finding that people are willing to vote altruistically, Rand said, runs counter to the oft-cited notion that people will ultimately act in their own interests when they go to the ballot box.

"A huge amount of public policy is built around the assumption that everyone is selfish," Rand explained. "The question for policy-makers has always been how to set up an institution that encourages people to do good things even though they're selfish.

"The key take-home message of our paper is that policy makers can take advantage of the fact that many people are not actually selfish," he continued. "A lot of people are altruistic, and you can have more efficient and more effective policies if you take this into account."

Though it's impossible to predict what the future holds, Nowak believes that understanding how to cooperate across generations may open the door to ensuring the decisions we make today do more than simply leave the most challenging problems of the present for future generations to solve.

"There is a huge literature on the evolution of cooperation, but this is the first step toward asking what we can do to cooperate with future generations," he said. "The largest problems we face today are occurring on a global scale -- how can we behave altruistically such that something is left for future generations?"


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Harvard University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Oliver P. Hauser, David G. Rand, Alexander Peysakhovich, Martin A. Nowak. Cooperating with the future. Nature, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nature13530

Cite This Page:

Harvard University. "A vote for cooperation: Research suggests voting may be key to cooperation with future generations." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140625132354.htm>.
Harvard University. (2014, June 25). A vote for cooperation: Research suggests voting may be key to cooperation with future generations. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140625132354.htm
Harvard University. "A vote for cooperation: Research suggests voting may be key to cooperation with future generations." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140625132354.htm (accessed December 20, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Science & Society News

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

After Sony Hack, What's Next?

After Sony Hack, What's Next?

Reuters - US Online Video (Dec. 19, 2014) The hacking attack on Sony Pictures has U.S. government officials weighing their response to the cyber-attack. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sierra Leone Bikers Spread the Message to Fight Ebola

Sierra Leone Bikers Spread the Message to Fight Ebola

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) More than 100 motorcyclists hit the road to spread awareness messages about Ebola. Nearly 7,000 people have now died from the virus, almost all of them in west Africa, according to the World Health Organization. Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Spokesman: 'NORAD Ready to Track Santa'

Spokesman: 'NORAD Ready to Track Santa'

AP (Dec. 19, 2014) Pentagon spokesman Rear Adm. John Kirby said that NORAD is ready to track Santa Claus as he delivers gifts next week. Speaking tongue-in-cheek, he said if Santa drops anything off his sleigh, "we've got destroyers out there to pick them up." (Dec. 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Navy Unveils Robot Fish

Navy Unveils Robot Fish

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Dec. 18, 2014) The U.S. Navy unveils an underwater device that mimics the movement of a fish. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

More Coverage


For the Next Generation: Democracy Ensures We Don't Take It All With Us

June 25, 2014 Given the chance to vote, people will leave behind a legacy of resources that ensures the survival of the next generation, a series of experiments by psychologists show. However, when people are left ... read more

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Science & Society

Business & Industry

Education & Learning

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins