Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine boosts immunity in children and could speed up global eradication efforts

Date:
July 11, 2014
Source:
The Lancet
Summary:
Giving children under 5 years old an extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) helps to boost their immunity to the poliovirus and should be added to vaccination programs in polio-endemic countries and those facing a high risk of imported cases, suggests new research.

Giving children under 5 years old an extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) helps to boost their immunity to the poliovirus and should be added to vaccination programmes in polio-endemic countries and those facing a high risk of imported cases, suggests new research published in The Lancet.

Related Articles


Lead author Dr Jacob John from Christian Medical College, India explains, “Adding a supplementary IPV dose to children already vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) may hasten polio eradication by boosting herd immunity in endemic regions, act as a booster to prevent international spread by travellers, and minimise the risk of polio outbreaks due to imported wildtype or vaccine-derived polioviruses.”

Mass vaccination with OPV has successfully eliminated wild poliovirus from most of the world, although it remains endemic in Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan, and imported cases have led to large outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Although OPV is highly effective, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive, its ability to generate a strong intestinal immunity to infection wanes as early as a year after vaccination. Thus, vaccinated children and adults can still be infected and shed wild poliovirus, contributing to the spread of the disease.

In an attempt to increase protection in children whose immunity might have waned, scientists from India and the UK examined the effect of an additional dose of IPV on both systemic and intestinal immunity in children from Vellore, India (aged 1 to 4 years) who had received at least five doses of OPV as part of routine immunisation at least 6 months previously. Children were randomly assigned to receive a dose of IPV (225 children) or no vaccine (225) at enrolment. The researchers used shedding of the virus (testing stool specimens) after a challenge dose of bivalent OPV containing serotypes 1 and 3 poliovirus to measure the immune response.

The additional IPV dose substantially boosted levels of protective antibodies in the blood and intestinal immunity against poliovirus compared with no vaccine. One week after challenge with OPV, 43 (19%) and 57 (26%) children given no vaccine shed serotype 1 or 3 poliovirus compared with 27 (12%) and 17 (8%) of those receiving IPV. Among children in the no vaccine group, the first dose of bivalent OPV did not reduce poliovirus shedding following a second challenge dose of this vaccine.

According to Professor Grassly, senior author of the study from Imperial College London, UK, “The substantial benefit of using IPV rather than further doses of OPV to boost intestinal immunity in children within the typical age range for mass vaccination supports its use as part of the global eradication programme.”*

Writing in a linked Comment, Professor Kimberly Thompson from the University of Central Florida College of Medicine, USA discusses the results in the context of national immunisation strategies saying that, “Giving an extra dose of IPV or OPV to already OPV-vaccinated children with waned immunity will provide some incremental individual benefit…[however] the effects on overall population immunity and cost-effectiveness of an extra dose remain uncertain…Some results from models that explore the potential addition of an IPV dose at the same time as the last OPV routine immunisation dose suggest that the benefit on overall population immunity and thus on poliovirus transmission might be small." 


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by The Lancet. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Jacob John, Sidhartha Giri, Arun S Karthikeyan, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Asha Abraham, Nicholas C Grassly, Gagandeep Kang. Effect of a single inactivated poliovirus vaccine dose on intestinal immunity against poliovirus in children previously given oral vaccine: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60934-X

Cite This Page:

The Lancet. "Extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine boosts immunity in children and could speed up global eradication efforts." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 July 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140711092041.htm>.
The Lancet. (2014, July 11). Extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine boosts immunity in children and could speed up global eradication efforts. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140711092041.htm
The Lancet. "Extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine boosts immunity in children and could speed up global eradication efforts." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140711092041.htm (accessed March 31, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Solitair Device Aims to Takes Guesswork out of Sun Safety

Solitair Device Aims to Takes Guesswork out of Sun Safety

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Mar. 31, 2015) — The Solitair device aims to take the confusion out of how much sunlight we should expose our skin to. Small enough to be worn as a tie or hair clip, it monitors the user&apos;s sun exposure by taking into account their skin pigment, location and schedule. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Soda, Salt and Sugar: The Next Generation of Taxes

Soda, Salt and Sugar: The Next Generation of Taxes

Washington Post (Mar. 30, 2015) — Denisa Livingston, a health advocate for the Dinι Community Advocacy Alliance, and the Post&apos;s Abby Phillip discuss efforts around the country to make unhealthy food choices hurt your wallet as much as your waistline. Video provided by Washington Post
Powered by NewsLook.com
UnitedHealth Buys Catamaran

UnitedHealth Buys Catamaran

Reuters - Business Video Online (Mar. 30, 2015) — The $12.8 billion merger will combine the U.S.&apos; third and fourth largest pharmacy benefit managers. Analysts say smaller PBMs could also merge. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
S. Leone in New Anti-Ebola Lockdown

S. Leone in New Anti-Ebola Lockdown

AFP (Mar. 28, 2015) — Sierra Leone imposed a three-day nationwide lockdown Friday for the second time in six months in a bid to prevent a resurgence of the deadly Ebola virus. Duration: 01:17 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins