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How many gold atoms make gold metal?

Date:
April 10, 2015
Source:
Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland)
Summary:
Researchers have shown that dramatic changes in the electronic properties of nanometer-sized chunks of gold occur in well-defined size range. Small gold nanoclusters could be used, for instance, in short-term storage of energy or electric charge in the field of molecular electronics. The researchers have been able to obtain new information which is important, among other things, in developing bioimaging and sensing based on metal-like clusters.
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Nanogold is different from macroscopic gold. The small 102-gold atom cluster (right) behaves like a giant molecule, but slightly larger 144-gold atom cluster is like a metal. The image on the right is from reference 1 below.
Credit: The University of Jyväskylä

Researchers at the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have shown that dramatic changes in the electronic properties of nanometre-sized chunks of gold occur in well-defined size range. Small gold nanoclusters could be used, for instance, in short-term storage of energy or electric charge in the field of molecular electronics. Funded by the Academy of Finland, the researchers have been able to obtain new information which is important, among other things, in developing bioimaging and sensing based on metal-like clusters.

Two recent papers by the researchers at Jyväskylä (1, 2) demonstrate that the electronic properties of two different but still quite similar gold nanoclusters can be drastically different. The clusters were synthesised by chemical methods incorporating a stabilising ligand layer on their surface. The researchers found that the smaller cluster, with up to 102 gold atoms, behaves like a giant molecule while the larger one, with at least 144 gold atoms, already behaves, in principle, like a macroscopic chunk of metal, but in nanosize.

The fundamentally different behaviour of these two differently sized gold nanoclusters was demonstrated by shining a laser light onto solution samples containing the clusters and by monitoring how energy dissipates from the clusters into the surrounding solvent.

"Molecules behave drastically different from metals," said Professor Mika Pettersson, the principal investigator of the team conducting the experiments. "The additional energy from light, absorbed by the metal-like clusters, transfers to the environment extremely rapidly, in about one hundred billionth of a second, while a molecule-like cluster is excited to a higher energy state and dissipates the energy into the environment with a rate that is at least 100 times slower. This is exactly what we saw: the 102-gold atom cluster is a giant molecule showing even a transient magnetic state while the 144-gold atom cluster is already a metal. We've thus managed to bracket an important size region where this fundamentally interesting change in the behaviour takes place."

"These experimental results go together very well with what our team has seen from computational simulations on these systems," said Professor Hannu Häkkinen, a co-author of the studies and the scientific director of the nanoscience centre. "My team predicted this kind of behaviour back in 2008-2009 when we saw big differences in the electronic structure of exactly these nanoclusters. It's wonderful that robust spectroscopic experiments have now proved these phenomena. In fact, the metal-like 144-atom cluster is even more interesting, since we just published a theoretical paper where we saw a big enhancement of the metallic properties of just a few copper atoms mixed with gold." (3)

The computational work was done at the CSC -- the IT Center for Science in Espoo, Finland, and at the HLRS centre in Stuttgart, Germany.


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Materials provided by Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal References:

  1. Satu Mustalahti, Pasi Myllyperkiö, Sami Malola, Tanja Lahtinen, Kirsi Salorinne, Jaakko Koivisto, Hannu Häkkinen, Mika Pettersson. Molecule-like Photodynamics of Au102(pMBA)44Nanocluster. ACS Nano, 2015; 9 (3): 2328 DOI: 10.1021/nn506711a
  2. Satu Mustalahti, Pasi Myllyperkiö, Tanja Lahtinen, Kirsi Salorinne, Sami Malola, Jaakko Koivisto, Hannu Häkkinen, Mika Pettersson. Ultrafast Electronic Relaxation and Vibrational Cooling Dynamics of Au144(SC2H4Ph)60Nanocluster Probed by Transient Mid-IR Spectroscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2014; 118 (31): 18233 DOI: 10.1021/jp505464z
  3. Sami Malola, Michael J. Hartmann, Hannu Häkkinen. Copper Induces a Core Plasmon in Intermetallic Au(144,145)–xCux(SR)60Nanoclusters. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2015; 6 (3): 515 DOI: 10.1021/jz502637b

Cite This Page:

Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). "How many gold atoms make gold metal?." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 April 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150410083516.htm>.
Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). (2015, April 10). How many gold atoms make gold metal?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 24, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150410083516.htm
Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). "How many gold atoms make gold metal?." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150410083516.htm (accessed May 24, 2017).

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