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Potential to predict peanut allergy immunotherapy outcomes

Successful immunotherapy induces changes in immune cell subtypes

Date:
January 25, 2016
Source:
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Summary:
Oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy induces early, distinct changes in immune T-cell populations that potentially may help researchers determine which people will respond well to the therapy and which immune mechanisms are involved in the response, a new study suggests.
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Oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy induces early, distinct changes in immune T-cell populations that potentially may help researchers determine which people will respond well to the therapy and which immune mechanisms are involved in the response, a new study suggests. The work was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and conducted by scientists at Stanford University.

The researchers examined blood samples taken from peanut-allergic volunteers enrolled in an oral immunotherapy study. Participants consumed small, gradually increasing daily doses of peanut protein for 24 months with the ultimate goal of inducing long-term tolerance to peanut. Using advanced laboratory techniques, the scientists tracked changes in peanut-specific T cells in five participants during the first 18 months of peanut immunotherapy.

They compared these results with those from blood samples taken before the start of immunotherapy and from healthy, non-allergic volunteers. Immunotherapy caused an increase in peanut-specific T cells, accompanied by a change in the distribution of T-cell subtypes over time. With treatment, T-cell subtypes normally associated with allergic responses diminished, while a novel T-cell population that likely would not mount an allergic response expanded.

These preliminary findings show the power of this approach to analyze and monitor allergen-specific immune cell changes during immunotherapy. Future studies with more patients will help determine whether this type of detailed T-cell analysis is useful for predicting which peanut-allergic individuals are most likely to benefit from this investigational therapy.


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Materials provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. John F. Ryan, Rachel Hovde, Jacob Glanville, Shu-Chen Lyu, Xuhuai Ji, Sheena Gupta, Robert J. Tibshirani, David C. Jay, Scott D. Boyd, R. Sharon Chinthrajah, Mark M. Davis, Stephen J. Galli, Holden T. Maecker, Kari C. Nadeau. Successful immunotherapy induces previously unidentified allergen-specific CD4 T-cell subsets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016; 201520180 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1520180113

Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Potential to predict peanut allergy immunotherapy outcomes: Successful immunotherapy induces changes in immune cell subtypes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 January 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160125185037.htm>.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2016, January 25). Potential to predict peanut allergy immunotherapy outcomes: Successful immunotherapy induces changes in immune cell subtypes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 30, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160125185037.htm
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Potential to predict peanut allergy immunotherapy outcomes: Successful immunotherapy induces changes in immune cell subtypes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160125185037.htm (accessed April 30, 2017).