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Genome analysis helps keep deadly brain cancer at bay for five years

Date:
February 15, 2017
Source:
Yale University
Summary:
An analysis of a patient’s deadly brain tumor helped doctors identify new emerging mutations and keep a 55-year old woman alive for more than five years, researchers report.
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An analysis of a patient's deadly brain tumor helped doctors at Smilow Cancer Hospital identify new emerging mutations and keep a 55-year old woman alive for more than five years, researchers report in the journal Genome Medicine.

The median survival rate for patients with glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is only 15 months, but three separate genomic analyses of the tumor identified new mutations that allowed doctors to adjust treatment and keep the patient alive for over five years, through two recurrences of the cancer.

"We were able to identify the molecular profile at each recurrence," said Dr. Murat Günel, chair and the Nixdorff-German Professor in the Department of Neurosurgery, researcher with Yale Cancer Center, and senior author of the paper. "The molecular make-up of the cancer changed after each treatment and with time, but we were able to adjust treatments based on those profiles."

For instance, the last genomic analysis revealed mutations of the cancer -- under selective pressure from targeted therapies -- had increased 30-fold, making the patient a good candidate for immunotherapy. Although there was an initial response, the cancer ultimately progressed.

The researchers were able to extend the findings on this case to more than 100 other GBM cases, leading to the observation that most GBMs change their genomic profile during therapy. "These findings have significant implications for precision treatment of these tumors" said Dr. Zeynep Erson Omay, the first author of the study and a research scientist in neurosurgery. "We now do a genetic analysis on every glioma surgically removed at Smilow Cancer Hospital during each recurrence or progression, comparing the molecular genomic profile to the original cancer to make treatment decisions."

With new drugs available, there is hope that "we will soon start to see real changes in patient outcomes," Gunel said.

Other Yale authors included Dr. Octavian Henegariu, Dr. S. Bülent Omay, Dr. Akdes Serin Harmancı, Mark W. Youngblood, Dr. Ketu Mishra-Gorur,Dr. Jie Li, Dr. Victoria E. Clark, Dr. Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Dr. Kaya Bilguvar, Dr. Katsuhito Yasuno, Dr. Joachim Baehring, and Dr. Jennifer Moliterno. The study was performed in collaboration with clinicians at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in NY.

The study was funded by the Gregory Kiez and Mehmet Kutman Foundation.


Story Source:

Materials provided by Yale University. Original written by Bill Hathaway. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. E. Zeynep Erson-Omay, Octavian Henegariu, S. Bülent Omay, Akdes Serin Harmancı, Mark W. Youngblood, Ketu Mishra-Gorur, Jie Li, Koray Özduman, Geneive Carrión-Grant, Victoria E. Clark, Caner Çağlar, Mehmet Bakırcıoğlu, M. Necmettin Pamir, Viviane Tabar, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Kaya Bilguvar, Katsuhito Yasuno, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Joachim M. Baehring, Jennifer Moliterno, Murat Günel. Longitudinal analysis of treatment-induced genomic alterations in gliomas. Genome Medicine, 2017; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s13073-017-0401-9

Cite This Page:

Yale University. "Genome analysis helps keep deadly brain cancer at bay for five years." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 February 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170215142035.htm>.
Yale University. (2017, February 15). Genome analysis helps keep deadly brain cancer at bay for five years. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 25, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170215142035.htm
Yale University. "Genome analysis helps keep deadly brain cancer at bay for five years." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170215142035.htm (accessed May 25, 2017).

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