Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Ripening Secrets Of The Vine Revealed

Date:
November 27, 2007
Source:
BioMed Central
Summary:
Whether you prefer a Cabernet Sauvignon or a Pinot Noir grape variety, two new research articles offer a host of new genetic information on fruit ripening for this economically important fruit crop.

The grapevine's gene expression analysis reveals two distinct molecular and functional phases that correspond with the green and red grape stages.
Credit: iStockphoto

Whether you prefer a Cabernet Sauvignon or a Pinot Noir grape variety, two new research articles offer a host of new genetic information on fruit ripening for this economically important fruit crop.

The grapevine's gene expression analysis reveals two distinct molecular and functional phases that correspond with the green and red grape stages. And researchers have reported the first biochemical evidence that reactive oxygen species accumulate during the colour transition.

Stefania Pilati and fellow researchers from the IASMA Research Center, San Michele all'Adige, Italy, investigated ripening Pinot Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) to identify fruit ripening genes and investigate seasonal influences. They found a core set of more than 1,400 ripening-specific genes that fluctuated similarly across three growing seasons and a smaller gene group strongly influenced by climatic conditions.

During the green berry (pre-véraison) phase, numerous genes involved in hormonal signalling and transcriptional regulation were modulated, suggesting large-scale cellular metabolism reprogramming. Auxin, ethylene and light played pivotal roles. During the following ripening (post-véraison) phase, genes for cell-wall organization and biogenesis, carbohydrate and secondary metabolisms, and stress response came into play, whereas photosynthesis was strongly repressed.

These transcriptional events tally with the processes of berry softening and accumulation of sugar, colour and aroma compounds, which ultimately determine berry and wine quality. At véraison, the intervening point when grapes slow down their growth and change colour, this study highlighted an oxidative burst involving hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an extensive modulation of the enzymatic anti-oxidative network.

Meanwhile, Laurent G. Deluc and colleagues from the University of Nevada, Reno and the Boston University School of Medicine, USA, took a closer look at the V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon variety, surveying seven different stages of grape berry development. The team mapped pronounced differences throughout development in messenger-RNA (mRNA) expression for genes that play key functional roles in a host of processes. These included organic and amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance.

In particular, the researchers recorded changes associated with transcription factor expression patterns, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and calcium signalling genes that identified candidate factors likely to participate in véraison, or aroma compound production, and in pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Some mRNAs were observed to decrease or increase specifically throughout ripening and sugar metabolism gene expression pattern analysis revealed an alternative and previously uncharacterised pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production invoked from véraison to mature berries.

Despite the grapevine's importance, genetic cues underlying the biochemical and physical changes during berry and flavour development have lain undiscovered - until now. "The large number of regulatory genes we have identified represents a powerful new resource for dissecting the mechanisms of fruit ripening control in non-climacteric plants", Pilati and co-workers say. Meanwhile, the second team say they have identified "a set of previously unknown genes potentially involved in critical steps associated with fruit development that can now be subjected to functional testing".

First journal article:  Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of grapevine berry ripening reveals a set of genes similarly modulated during three seasons and the occurrence of an oxidative burst at vèraison, Stefania Pilati, Michele Perazzolli, Andrea Malossini, Alessandro Cestaro, Lorenzo Demattè, Paolo Fontana, Antonio Dal Ri, Roberto Viola, Riccardo Velasco and Claudio Moser, BMC Genomics (in press)

Second journal article: Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development, Laurent Deluc, Jérôme Grimplet, Matthew Wheatley, Richard Tillett, David Quilici, Craig Osborne, David Schooley, Karen Schlauch, John Cushman, Grant Cramer, BMC Genomics (in press)


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by BioMed Central. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

BioMed Central. "Ripening Secrets Of The Vine Revealed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 November 2007. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071121085719.htm>.
BioMed Central. (2007, November 27). Ripening Secrets Of The Vine Revealed. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071121085719.htm
BioMed Central. "Ripening Secrets Of The Vine Revealed." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071121085719.htm (accessed September 30, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

California University Designs Sustainable Winery

California University Designs Sustainable Winery

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 27, 2014) — Amid California's worst drought in decades, scientists at UC Davis design a sustainable winery that includes a water recycling system. Vanessa Johnston reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Argentina Worries Over Decline of Soybean Prices

Argentina Worries Over Decline of Soybean Prices

AFP (Sep. 27, 2014) — The drop in price of soy on the international market is a cause for concern in Argentina, as soybean exports are a major source of income for Latin America's third largest economy. Duration: 01:10 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Mama Bear, Cubs Hang out in California Backyard

Mama Bear, Cubs Hang out in California Backyard

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 27, 2014) — A mama bear and her two cubs climb trees, wrestle and take naps in the backyard of a Monrovia, California home. Vanessa Johnston reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
'Crazy' Climate Forces Colombian Farmers to Adapt

'Crazy' Climate Forces Colombian Farmers to Adapt

AFP (Sep. 26, 2014) — Once upon a time, farming was a blissfully low-tech business on Colombia's northern plains. Duration: 02:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins