Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Charge separation in a molecule consisting of two identical atoms: Size matters

Date:
November 28, 2011
Source:
University of Stuttgart
Summary:
Physicists have now shown the first experimental proof of a molecule consisting of two identical atoms that exhibits a permanent electric dipole moment. This observation contradicts the classical opinion described in many physics and chemistry textbooks.

Physicists from the University of Stuttgart show the first experimental proof of a molecule consisting of two identical atoms that exhibits a permanent electric dipole moment. This observation contradicts the classical opinion described in many physics and chemistry textbooks.
Credit: University of Stuttgart

Physicists from the University of Stuttgart show the first experimental proof of a molecule consisting of two identical atoms that exhibits a permanent electric dipole moment. This observation contradicts the classical opinion described in many physics and chemistry textbooks.

Related Articles


The work was recently published in the journal Science.

A dipolar molecule forms as a result of a charge separation between the negative charged electron cloud and the positive core, creating a permanent electric dipole moment. Usually this charge separation originates in different attraction of the cores of different elements onto the negative charged electrons. Due to symmetry reasons homonuclear molecules, consisting only of atoms of the same element, therefore could not possess dipole moments.

However, the dipolar molecules that were discovered by the group of Prof. Tilman Pfau at the 5th Institute of Physics at the University of Stuttgart do consist of two atoms of the element rubidium. The necessary asymmetry arises as a result of different electronically excited states of the two alike atoms. Generally this excitation will be exchanged between the atoms and the asymmetry will be lifted. Here this exchange is suppressed by the huge size of the molecule, which is about 1000 times larger than an oxygen molecule and reaches sizes of viruses. Therefore the probability to exchange the excitation between the two atoms is so small that it would statistically only happen once in the lifetime of the universe. Consequently, these homonuclear molecules possess a dipole moment. A permanent dipole moment additionally requires an orientation of the molecular axis. Due to their size the molecules rotate so slowly that the dipole moment does not average out from the viewpoint of an observer.

Physicists from the University of Stuttgart succeeded in experimentally detecting the dipole moment. They measured the energy shift of the molecule in an electric field by laser spectroscopy in an ultra cold atomic cloud. The same group caused worldwide a stir when they created these weakly bound Rydberg molecules for the first time in 2009. The molecules consist of two identical atoms whereof one is excited to a highly excited state, a so-called Rydberg state. The unusual binding mechanism relies on scattering of the highly excited Rydberg electron of the second atom. So far theoretical descriptions of this binding mechanism did not predict a dipole moment. However, the scattering of the Rydberg electron of the bound atom changes the probability distribution of the electron. This breaks the otherwise spherical symmetry and creates a dipole moment. In collaboration with theoretical physicists from the Max-Plank-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden and from the Harvard-Smithonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, USA, a new theoretical treatment was developed that confirms the observation of a dipole moment.

The proof of a permanent dipole moment in a homonuclear molecule not only improves the understanding of polar molecules. Ultra cold polar molecules are also promising to study and control chemical reactions of single molecules.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Stuttgart. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. W. Li, T. Pohl, J. M. Rost, S. T. Rittenhouse, H. R. Sadeghpour, J. Nipper, B. Butscher, J. B. Balewski, V. Bendkowsky, R. Low, T. Pfau. A Homonuclear Molecule with a Permanent Electric Dipole Moment. Science, 2011; 334 (6059): 1110 DOI: 10.1126/science.1211255

Cite This Page:

University of Stuttgart. "Charge separation in a molecule consisting of two identical atoms: Size matters." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 November 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111125160904.htm>.
University of Stuttgart. (2011, November 28). Charge separation in a molecule consisting of two identical atoms: Size matters. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111125160904.htm
University of Stuttgart. "Charge separation in a molecule consisting of two identical atoms: Size matters." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111125160904.htm (accessed December 21, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Matter & Energy News

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Building Google Into Cars

Building Google Into Cars

Reuters - Business Video Online (Dec. 19, 2014) Google's next Android version could become the standard that'll power your vehicle's entertainment and navigation features, Reuters has learned. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
AP Review: Nikon D750 and GoPro Hero 4

AP Review: Nikon D750 and GoPro Hero 4

AP (Dec. 19, 2014) What to buy an experienced photographer or video shooter? There is some strong gear on the market from Nikon and GoPro. The AP's Ron Harris takes a closer look. (Dec. 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Double-Amputee Becomes First To Move Two Prosthetic Arms With His Mind

Double-Amputee Becomes First To Move Two Prosthetic Arms With His Mind

Buzz60 (Dec. 19, 2014) A double-amputee makes history by becoming the first person to wear and operate two prosthetic arms using only his mind. Jen Markham has the story. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Navy Unveils Robot Fish

Navy Unveils Robot Fish

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Dec. 18, 2014) The U.S. Navy unveils an underwater device that mimics the movement of a fish. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Space & Time

Matter & Energy

Computers & Math

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins