Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New perspectives on the function of the Golgi apparatus

Date:
August 9, 2012
Source:
Heidelberg, Universität
Summary:
New perspectives have been reached on the function of the Golgi apparatus. Scientists explain a basic difference between plant and animal cells.

Golgi stacks (labelled with Man1-YFP) and import sites (labelled with the ER tethering factor TIP20-CFP) colocalize even when Golgi stacks are mobile. Both fluorescently-tagged proteins were coexpressed together with the ER marker RFP-p24d5 in tobacco.
Credit: Robinson

Cell biologists at the University of Heidelberg have recently obtained data which can explain the different way the Golgi apparatus functions in higher plant and mammalian cells. In contrast to mammalian cells the Golgi apparatus -- a membrane system in the cytoplasm, which participates in a variety of metabolic pathways -- consists in higher plants of hundreds of small Golgi stacks which move along the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a stop-and-go fashion. Prof. David G. Robinson and his research group at the Centre for Organismal Studies of the University of Heidelberg have now been able to provide a mechanistic explanation for the highly ordered and efficient transport of vesicles between the ER and Golgi stacks.

Related Articles


Their results have just been published in the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

The Golgi apparatus is one of the most important and variable of the organelles belonging to the endomembrane system. One of its essential functions is to modify and sort macromolecules which are destined for either the lysosome (or the vacuole in plants) of for the extracellular milieu. Whereas in mammalian cells the Golgi apparatus is a complex permanently fixed in the vicinity of the nucleus, in higher plants it is subdivided into hundreds of small mobile Golgi stacks. "A consequence of this morphological difference is that vesicle transport between the ER and the Golgi stacks needs to be highly efficient and strictly regulated in order that vesicles do not get lost during Golgi movement," explained Prof. Robinson.

In order to investigate this process, the Heidelberg scientists looked for so-called ER-import sites (ERIS): special domains of the ER where incoming vesicles from the Golgi stacks fuse with the ER. "In this regard, one of the most important problems to be addressed was the spatio-temporal relationship of ERIS to the domain(s) of the ER responsible for export (ERES) and to the mobile Golgi stacks," said Prof. Robinson. In order to identify ERIS, The Heidelberg team used fluorescently-tagged proteins that were known to participate in the process of vesicle fusion. These included so-called tethering factors, responsible for the long-range capture of vesicles, as well as SNARE proteins which are involved in the actual fusion process with the ER membrane.

It turns out that both classes of protein are restricted to domains which lie immediately beneath the the Golgi stacks. "Even more surprising was the discovery that the export domains (ERES) were also present at this position, and that both moved in parallel with the Golgi stacks," declared Prof. Robinson. By having the import and export machineries so tightly coupled to the Golgi stack, it is now clear how the higher plant cell can effectively accomplish vesicle transfer between the ER and the Golgi apparatus without loss during the fast Golgi movement. "This aspect of the higher plant endomembrane system differs totally from animal cells and is a unique and totally new feature among organisms possessing a nucleus and internal membranes" emphasized Prof. Robinson.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Heidelberg, Universität. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alexander Lerich, Stefan Hillmer, Markus Langhans, David Scheuring, Paulien van Bentum, David G. Robinson. ER Import Sites and Their Relationship to ER Exit Sites: A New Model for Bidirectional ER-Golgi Transport in Higher Plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 2012; 3 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00143

Cite This Page:

Heidelberg, Universität. "New perspectives on the function of the Golgi apparatus." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 August 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809090433.htm>.
Heidelberg, Universität. (2012, August 9). New perspectives on the function of the Golgi apparatus. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809090433.htm
Heidelberg, Universität. "New perspectives on the function of the Golgi apparatus." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809090433.htm (accessed December 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Monday, December 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) — Scientists in Amsterdam say couples transfer tens of millions of microbes when they kiss, encouraging healthy exposure to bacteria. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) — Cambridge scientists have unravelled the genetic code of a rare tapeworm that lived inside a patient's brain for at least four year. Researchers hope it will present new opportunities to diagnose and treat this invasive parasite. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) — Polish scientists isolate bacteria from earthworm intestines which they say may be used in antibiotics and cancer treatments. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Existing Chemical Compounds Could Revive Failing Antibiotics, Says Danish Scientist

Existing Chemical Compounds Could Revive Failing Antibiotics, Says Danish Scientist

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) — A team of scientists led by Danish chemist Jorn Christensen says they have isolated two chemical compounds within an existing antipsychotic medication that could be used to help a range of failing antibiotics work against killer bacterial infections, such as Tuberculosis. Jim Drury went to meet him. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins