Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Scientists show how cells protect DNA from catastrophic damage

Date:
November 21, 2013
Source:
University of Copenhagen
Summary:
Researchers have unveiled a profound biological process that explains how DNA can be damaged during genome replication. In addition, the scientists developed a new analytical tool to measure the cell's response to chemotherapy, which could have an important impact on future cancer therapy.

The scientists were able to visualize the process of DNA replication and damage directly in cells with an unprecedented detail.
Credit: University of Copenhagen

Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have unveiled a profound biological process that explains how DNA can be damaged during genome replication. In addition, the scientists developed a new analytical tool to measure the cell's response to chemotherapy, which could have an important impact on future cancer therapy. The results are now published in the scientific journal Cell.

An international team of researchers led by Professor Jiri Lukas from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen have unveiled a process that explains how DNA can be damaged during genome replication, due to the lack of a critical protein.

Cells need to keep their genomic DNA unharmed to stay healthy and the scientists were able to visualize the process of DNA replication and damage directly in cells with an unprecedented detail. They discovered a fundamental mechanism of how proteins protect chromosomes while DNA is being copied (a process called DNA replication), which relies on a protein called RPA. Cells have a limited amount of this protein, which they use as 'band aids' to protect the DNA temporarily during replication. If they use up the RPA reservoir, their DNA breaks severely and cells are no longer able to divide.

"We now understand that many drugs used in chemotherapy are toxic against tumours because they make DNA replication difficult and force cancer cells to consume their RPA pool much faster than normal cells usually do. As a result, cancer cells are constantly at the verge of falling into a 'replication catastrophe', a condition from which they cannot recover, and which can be used as a powerful means to selectively eliminate cancer cells," says Luis Ignacio Toledo, the first author of this study.

Future impact on cancer diagnosis and treatment

In addition to helping other scientists to comprehend some of the most fundamental processes in cell physiology, the findings could have important implications for cancer diagnosis and treatment by helping understand, at the molecular level, what makes cancer cells different from normal cells.

"The relevance of our discovery is that it provides an explanation for a broad spectrum of previous scientific observations, which on the first glance seemed unrelated, but which we now show can be unified into a simple comprehensive model to understand how proteins protect DNA from catastrophic damage," concludes Luis Ignacio Toledo.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Copenhagen. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. LuisIgnacio Toledo, Matthias Altmeyer, Maj-Britt Rask, Claudia Lukas, DortheHelena Larsen, LouKlitgaard Povlsen, Simon Bekker-Jensen, Niels Mailand, Jiri Bartek, Jiri Lukas. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA. Cell, 2013; 155 (5): 1088 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.043

Cite This Page:

University of Copenhagen. "Scientists show how cells protect DNA from catastrophic damage." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 November 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131121130031.htm>.
University of Copenhagen. (2013, November 21). Scientists show how cells protect DNA from catastrophic damage. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131121130031.htm
University of Copenhagen. "Scientists show how cells protect DNA from catastrophic damage." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131121130031.htm (accessed April 19, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Saturday, April 19, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Vermont Goat Meat Gives Refugees Taste of Home

Vermont Goat Meat Gives Refugees Taste of Home

AP (Apr. 18, 2014) Dairy farmers and ethnic groups in Vermont are both benefiting from a unique collaborative effort that's feeding a growing need for fresh and affordable goat meat. (April 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Man Claims He Found Loch Ness Monster With... Apple Maps?

Man Claims He Found Loch Ness Monster With... Apple Maps?

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) Andy Dixon showed the Daily Mail a screenshot of what he believes to be the mythical beast swimming just below the lake's surface. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
First Ever 'Female Penis' Discovered In Animal Kingdom

First Ever 'Female Penis' Discovered In Animal Kingdom

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) Not only are these newly discovered bugs' sex organs reversed, but they also mate for up to 70 hours. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Little Progress Made In Fighting Food Poisoning, CDC Says

Little Progress Made In Fighting Food Poisoning, CDC Says

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) A new report shows rates of two foodborne infections increased in the U.S. in recent years, while salmonella actually dropped 9 percent. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins