A new consensus statement of experts assembled by the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society reviews emerging evidence that suggests cancer incidence is associated with diabetes as well as certain diabetes risk factors and treatments.
The new report reviews the state of science concerning the association between diabetes and cancer incidence/prognosis; risk factors common to both diseases; possible biologic links between diabetes and cancer risk; and whether diabetes treatments influence the risk of cancer or cancer prognosis. In addition, the report outlines key unanswered questions for future research.
Diabetes and cancer are common diseases that have a tremendous impact on health worldwide. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that people with diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of many forms of cancer. Type 2 diabetes and cancer share many risk factors, but potential biologic links between the two diseases are not completely understood. Moreover, evidence from observational studies suggests that some medications used to treat hyperglycemia are associated with either an increased or reduced risk of cancer.
Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society convened a consensus development conference in December 2009. After a series of scientific presentations by experts in the field, the writing group independently developed a consensus report to address important questions: Is there a meaningful association between diabetes and cancer incidence or prognosis? What risk factors are common to both cancer and diabetes? What are possible biologic links between diabetes and cancer risk? And do diabetes treatments influence cancer risk or cancer prognosis?
For each of these areas, the authors were asked to address current gaps in evidence and potential research and epidemiologic strategies for developing more definitive evidence in the future. Below is a summary of their findings and recommendations.
"Traditionally there hasn't been much overlap between research in cancer and in diabetes," says Edward Giovannucci, MD, SCD, co-chair of the consensus report group. "But recently it's become clearer that there are fascinating links between the two. Our summary may raise more questions than provide answers, but we hope that it will spur additional studies."
"The vast majority of patients with diabetes need not consider cancer risk when weighing their diabetes therapy options," added David M. Harlan, MD, co-chair of the consensus report group, "Only patients with a very high risk for cancer occurrence, or re-occurrence, may wish to carefully consider their options. Even then, the association appears to exist for some cancer types, and not for others. We have much to learn."
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