Science News
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New research sheds light on neural circuit development

Date:
February 3, 2015
Source:
Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience
Summary:
Using multiphoton imaging, researchers are now able to move beyond characterizing the properties of individual cells to investigate how communication among neurons changes over the course of development. In a new paper, researchers report substantial developmental changes in communication among cells that significantly improve the information processing capabilities of the brain.
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FULL STORY

Previous work, including studies performed in the Fitzpatrick Lab at MPFI, has shown that individual brain cells refine their responses to stimuli with experience so they can better discriminate between similar features in their environments. However, the signals of individual brain cells can be noisy and imprecise – which means our brains cannot rely solely on the activity of single neurons to make accurate decisions about our world. Instead, we combine the activity of thousands to millions of neurons to ensure a more accurate message, which makes effective communication amongst large populations of neurons a central feature of the brain.

This study demonstrates that, over development, neural circuits reorganize themselves to decrease noise and improve the fidelity of communication amongst each other. The critical role these changes play in brain development highlights the importance and urgency in understanding neural circuits in more detail and suggests new avenues for investigating the underlying causes of developmental disorders such as autism.

Future Directions

The authors of the study said the key question moving forward is to understand what specific changes in brain circuitry give rise to the effects observed in this study. Where do these changes manifest themselves within the circuit and what molecular processes do they utilize? We know that a number of structural changes also occur during this developmental period, and we now can attempt to link those changes to the changes in circuit function.


Story Source:

Materials provided by Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Gordon B Smith, Audrey Sederberg, Yishai M Elyada, Stephen D Van Hooser, Matthias Kaschube, David Fitzpatrick. The development of cortical circuits for motion discrimination. Nature Neuroscience, 2015; 18 (2): 252 DOI: 10.1038/nn.3921

Cite This Page:

Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience. "New research sheds light on neural circuit development." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 February 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150203133327.htm>.
Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience. (2015, February 3). New research sheds light on neural circuit development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 8, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150203133327.htm
Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience. "New research sheds light on neural circuit development." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150203133327.htm (accessed May 8, 2017).