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'Milk' protein that enables survival of the species discovered by researchers

Date:
March 2, 2015
Source:
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
Summary:
The protein MCL-1 is critical for keeping milk-producing cells alive and sustaining milk production in the breast, researchers have discovered. Without milk production, offspring cannot survive, making MCL-1 essential for survival of mammalian species.
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Professor Jane Visvader (left) and Dr Nai Yang Fu have discovered that MCL-1 is critical for survival of the species.
Credit: Image courtesy of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute

Australian researchers have discovered the protein MCL-1 is critical for keeping milk-producing cells alive and sustaining milk production in the breast. Without milk production, offspring cannot survive, making MCL-1 essential for survival of mammalian species.

Dr Nai Yang Fu, Professor Geoff Lindeman and Professor Jane Visvader from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute led the research, published in the journal Nature Cell Biology.

Professor Visvader said MCL-1 was found to be an important regulator of breast development and its milk-producing cells. "This study has unlocked one of the key survival factors in the mammary gland," Professor Visvader said.

"MCL-1 is important for all stages of breast development, from puberty to pregnancy and lactation. Based on this discovery, it is reasonable to believe that every mammal requires MCL-1 for milk production and, ultimately, the survival of their offspring."

Integral for cell survival

Dr Fu said MCL-1 levels increased dramatically in the breast within 12 hours of giving birth. "We were able to use very sensitive technologies to determine that stem cells and luminal cells were the breast cells that most critically rely on MCL-1," Dr Fu said. "Luminal cells are the cells that line breast ducts and respond to hormones during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. It now seems clear that MCL-1 is integral to the survival of these cells."

Professor Visvader said the discovery further underscored the importance of MCL-1 for cell survival. "In addition to our discovery, a number of recent research studies at our institute have shown that MCL-1 is important for the survival of certain immune cells, and for the survival and growth of cancers including leukemia and lymphoma," she said.

"Stem cells and luminal progenitor cells both require MCL-1 for their survival. Our team has previously implicated both these cell types in some types of breast cancer, raising the question of whether MCL-1 is an important target for developing anti-cancer drugs."

Professor Lindeman said the research also identified that EGF -- a growth factor -- works in tandem with MCL-1 during lactation. "EGF has emerged as a key inducer of MCL-1 at the switch to lactation," he said. "It will be important to determine whether this mechanism also operates in breast cancer, as this could reveal new ways of targeting the disease."

Unlocking breast cancer secrets

Professor Lindeman, Professor Visvader and their breast cancer research team have spent the past 15 years unravelling the secrets of normal breast development in a bid to improve our understanding, and ultimately treatment, of breast cancer.

"You cannot fully understand how breast cancers arise without understanding normal development in the breast," Professor Visvader said. "This is an exciting time for our research team. Some of the discoveries we have made on breast development and how it goes awry in cancer have helped to identify potential targets for therapy, leading to preclinical studies and clinical trials aimed at breast cancer treatment or prevention."


Story Source:

Materials provided by Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Nai Yang Fu, Anne C. Rios, Bhupinder Pal, Rina Soetanto, Aaron T. L. Lun, Kevin Liu, Tamara Beck, Sarah A. Best, François Vaillant, Philippe Bouillet, Andreas Strasser, Thomas Preiss, Gordon K. Smyth, Geoffrey J. Lindeman, Jane E. Visvader. EGF-mediated induction of Mcl-1 at the switch to lactation is essential for alveolar cell survival. Nature Cell Biology, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/ncb3117

Cite This Page:

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. "'Milk' protein that enables survival of the species discovered by researchers." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 March 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302123251.htm>.
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. (2015, March 2). 'Milk' protein that enables survival of the species discovered by researchers. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 23, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302123251.htm
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. "'Milk' protein that enables survival of the species discovered by researchers." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302123251.htm (accessed May 23, 2017).

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