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Hormones are linked with sleep apnea, snoring in postmenopausal women

June 22, 2022
A new study has found an association between obstructive sleep apnea risk and low estrogen and progesterone levels in women.

Middle-aged women with low levels of estrogen and progesterone are more likely to snore and to report symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, according to a new study published this week in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Kai Triebner of University of Bergen, Norway, and colleagues.

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea -- in which breathing stops and starts during sleep -- is known to be higher in women after menopause. However no population-based study has previously examined whether this is the result of altered sex hormone levels.

In the new study, the researchers analyzed data from 774 women aged 40 to 67 in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, conducted in seven countries between 2010 and 2012. Women in the study participated in questionnaires on their respiratory health, women's health factors, lifestyle and sleep, and gave blood samples for hormone analysis.

551 of the women in the study (71.2%) had been told they snored, and 411 of those women also reported other symptoms of sleep apnea. Among all women, a doubling of serum concentrations of estrone was associated with 19% decreased odds of snoring. A doubling of progesterone levels was associated with 9% decreased odds of snoring. Among snorers, a doubling of the concentrations of three estrogens (17β-estradiol, estrone and estrone 3-sulfate) was associated with 17% to 23% decreased odds of women having been told they breathe irregularly during sleep. A doubling of progesterone concentration, among snorers, was associated with 12% decreased odds of having woken with a choking sensation in the previous year.

The authors conclude that adjusting female sex hormones might be a strategy to decrease the high prevalence and associated morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea, but say that further longitudinal studies are required to confirm the findings.

The authors add: "Female sex hormones are crucial for health and disease, and especially after menopause the hormone status should be considered to develop holistic treatment strategies."

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Journal Reference:

  1. Erla S. Sigurðardóttir, Thorarinn Gislason, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Steinar Hustad, Payam Dadvand, Pascal Demoly, Karl A. Franklin, Joachim Heinrich, Mathias Holm, Diana A. van der Plaat, Rain Jõgi, Benedicte Leynaert, Eva Lindberg, Jesus Martinez-Moratalla, Leire Sainz De Aja, Giancarlo Pesce, Isabelle Pin, Chantal Raherison, Antonio Pereira-Vega, Francisco Gómez Real, Kai Triebner. Female sex hormones and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in European women of a population-based cohort. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (6): e0269569 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269569

Cite This Page:

PLOS. "Hormones are linked with sleep apnea, snoring in postmenopausal women." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 June 2022. <>.
PLOS. (2022, June 22). Hormones are linked with sleep apnea, snoring in postmenopausal women. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 7, 2023 from
PLOS. "Hormones are linked with sleep apnea, snoring in postmenopausal women." ScienceDaily. (accessed December 7, 2023).

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