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Blueprint for mandating indoor air quality for public buildings in form of standards

Date:
March 29, 2024
Source:
Queensland University of Technology
Summary:
A group of international experts has presented a blueprint for national indoor quality standards for public buildings. The experts addressed setting standards for three key indoor pollutants -- carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM2.5 (particles so small they can lodge deep in the lungs and enter the bloodstream) -- and ventilation rate.
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A group of international experts led by QUT Professor Lidia Morawska has presented a blueprint for national indoor quality standards for public buildings, in an article in the journal Science.

The experts addressed setting standards for three key indoor pollutants -- carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 which are particles so small they can lodge deep in the lungs and enter the bloodstream -- and ventilation rate.

Distinguished Professor Morawska, from the QUT School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, internationally known, among others, for leading the appeal to the WHO to recognise the airborne transmission spread of the Covid-19 virus early in the pandemic, has continued to raise the importance of adequate indoor air quality for public spaces.

"Most countries do not have any legislated indoor air quality (IAQ) performance standards for public spaces that address concentration levels of IA pollutants," Professor Morawska said.

"To have practical value, IAQ standards must be implementable by designing new buildings that are built, operated and maintained to standard or retrofitted to meet the standards.

"While there is a cost in the short term, the social and economic benefits to public health, wellbeing and productivity will likely far outweigh the investment in cost in achieving clean indoor air."

Professor Morawska said CO2 sensors were readily available, inexpensive and robust and should be used as a proxy to measure pathogens and CO2 during human occupancy in a public space.

"CO2 can serve as a proxy for occupant-emitted contaminants and pathogens and to effectively assess ventilation quality," she said.

"We propose a CO2 concentration level of 800ppm with the proviso that outdoor concentration is used as a baseline and recognition of the fact that outdoor concentrations are increasing due to emissions to the atmosphere that outweigh removal.

"Another key indicator of air quality we addressed is the amount of PM2.5 and we propose the WHO air quality guidelines as a basis for indoor air quality standards but with a 1-hour averaging time, as the 24 hours of the WHO AQG is much longer than people usually spend in public places."

Professor Morawska said mechanical ventilation systems should remove and dilute human-emitted and other indoor-generated pollutants at a higher rate than their production so that they would not accumulate in indoor air.

"The technologies for measuring ventilation already exist in most modern mechanically ventilated buildings but monitoring ventilation rates in terms of clean air delivered to the space requires us to consider the number of people and their activities in the space to ensure adequate IAQ.

"A practical ventilation standard could be air from outside (assumed to be clean), or clean recirculated air to the entire occupied zone and with airflow not directed from one person to another.

"Additional measures in support of ventilation, such as air cleaning and disinfection, could greatly reduce the need to increase the outdoor air supply, which carries a heavy energy demand.

"Filtering recirculated air is an effective way to reduce concentration of, and thus our exposure to, airborne particulate matter, allergens and pathogens."


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Materials provided by Queensland University of Technology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Lidia Morawska, Joseph Allen, William Bahnfleth, Belinda Bennett, Philomena M. Bluyssen, Atze Boerstra, Giorgio Buonanno, Junji Cao, Stephanie J. Dancer, Andres Floto, Francesco Franchimon, Trish Greenhalgh, Charles Haworth, Jaap Hogeling, Christina Isaxon, Jose L. Jimenez, Amanda Kennedy, Prashant Kumar, Jarek Kurnitski, Yuguo Li, Marcel Loomans, Guy Marks, Linsey C. Marr, Livio Mazzarella, Arsen Krikor Melikov, Shelly L. Miller, Donald K. Milton, Jason Monty, Peter V. Nielsen, Catherine Noakes, Jordan Peccia, Kimberly A. Prather, Xavier Querol, Tunga Salthammer, Chandra Sekhar, Olli Seppänen, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Julian W. Tang, Raymond Tellier, Kwok Wai Tham, Pawel Wargocki, Aneta Wierzbicka, Maosheng Yao. Mandating indoor air quality for public buildings. Science, 2024; 383 (6690): 1418 DOI: 10.1126/science.adl0677

Cite This Page:

Queensland University of Technology. "Blueprint for mandating indoor air quality for public buildings in form of standards." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 March 2024. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/03/240328162610.htm>.
Queensland University of Technology. (2024, March 29). Blueprint for mandating indoor air quality for public buildings in form of standards. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 24, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/03/240328162610.htm
Queensland University of Technology. "Blueprint for mandating indoor air quality for public buildings in form of standards." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/03/240328162610.htm (accessed April 24, 2024).

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