Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Checkered History Of Mother And Daughter Cells Explains Cell Cycle Differences

Date:
October 20, 2009
Source:
Rockefeller University
Summary:
New research reveals that regulatory differences between mother and daughter cells during cell division are directly linked to how they prepare for their next split.

Long division. When budding yeast cells divide, a gene regulator called Ace2 (yellow) is present in only half the offspring.
Credit: Image courtesy of Rockefeller University

When mother and daughter cells are created each time a cell divides, they are not exactly alike. They have the same set of genes, but differ in the way they regulate them. New research now reveals that these regulatory differences between mother and daughter cells are directly linked to how they prepare for their next split. The work, a collaboration between scientists at Rockefeller University and the State University of New York, Stony Brook, may ultimately lead to a better understanding of how cell division goes awry in different types of cancer. The findings are reported in this week's PLoS Biology.

"You can basically think of mother and daughter cells as different cells just like you would a neuron and liver cell but on a much subtler level," says first author Stefano Di Talia, who received his Ph.D. from Rockefeller in 2009. "We found that their differences in gene expression are also what makes the mother and daughter cells start their cell cycles differently."

When a mature cell divides, it produces a mother and a daughter cell, the daughter being smaller than the mother, explains Di Talia, who is now a postdoc at Princeton University. Since the 1970s, it was thought that both mother and daughter cells use the same gears and levers to prepare for cell division. The only difference was that the daughter cell would take longer to start dividing on account of its size.

This tidy explanation now gives way to a more nuanced version, the seeds of which can be traced to research from the University of Wisconsin in 2003. It was then proposed that the size of the daughter cell has no bearing on whether it is ready to divide. What matters is that the daughter cell, and not the mother cell, receives a protein called Ace2 at the time the two cells are born. "This model was against the accepted dogma and against our own previous findings. Our work was an attempt to resolve the debate," says Di Talia.

Di Talia and Frederick R. Cross, head of Rockefeller's Laboratory of Yeast Molecular Genetics and a researcher who, like the Wisconsin group, works with budding yeast, seem to have reconciled the two theories and in the process nailed down new details.

The researchers found that both mothers and daughters do control and sense their size before committing to divide but the levers and gears that they use to make that commitment are different. The reason: Daughters, but not mothers, receive the protein Ace2 as well as a never-before-implicated protein called Ash1, which, like Ace2, controls the levers that crank genes into gear.

In their work, Di Talia and Cross studied a phase of the cell cycle known as G1, during which cells determine whether they are healthy enough to enter another grueling phase of division. G1 is considered critical because mistakes in this process can lead to cancer.

Di Talia and Cross, with colleagues Bruce Futcher and Hongyin Wang at SUNY Stony Brook, found that daughter cells, which normally have Ace2 and Ash1, interpret their size as 20 percent smaller than their birth twin. The researchers show that, without these proteins, daughter cells begin dividing as if they were mother cells, even at a size that would normally be deemed too small. When Ace2 and Ash1 were genetically manipulated to localize into mothers as well, the opposite happened: they unnecessarily continued to grow and began dividing as if they were daughters.

This critical finding showed that the direct target of these two proteins is a gene called CLN3, which scientists have long suspected is the ultimate green light for cells to start dividing. The reason daughter cells spend a longer time preparing for cell division is because both Ace2 and Ash1 lower the expression of CLN3. To make sure daughter cells do not start dividing before they are ready, and as backup, Ace2 also turns on production of Ash1.

"This work builds on our previous findings very nicely," says Di Talia. "That CLN3 is the central regulator of this cell cycle phase and that it is controlled very precisely shows that even small changes can result in big differences."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Rockefeller University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Kellogg et al. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast. PLoS Biology, 2009; 7 (10): e1000221 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000221

Cite This Page:

Rockefeller University. "Checkered History Of Mother And Daughter Cells Explains Cell Cycle Differences." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 October 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091019205058.htm>.
Rockefeller University. (2009, October 20). Checkered History Of Mother And Daughter Cells Explains Cell Cycle Differences. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091019205058.htm
Rockefeller University. "Checkered History Of Mother And Daughter Cells Explains Cell Cycle Differences." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091019205058.htm (accessed July 25, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Friday, July 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

How to Make Single Serving Smoothies: Howdini Hacks

How to Make Single Serving Smoothies: Howdini Hacks

Howdini (July 24, 2014) Smoothies are a great way to get in lots of healthy ingredients, plus they taste great! Howdini has a trick for making the perfect single-size smoothie that will save you time on cleanup too! All you need is a blender and a mason jar. Video provided by Howdini
Powered by NewsLook.com
Boy Attacked by Shark in Florida

Boy Attacked by Shark in Florida

Reuters - US Online Video (July 24, 2014) An 8-year-old boy is bitten in the leg by a shark while vacationing at a Florida beach. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Goma Cheese Brings Whiff of New Hope to DRC

Goma Cheese Brings Whiff of New Hope to DRC

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 24, 2014) The eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, mainly known for conflict and instability, is an unlikely place for the production of fine cheese. But a farm in the village of Masisi, in North Kivu is slowly transforming perceptions of the area. Known simply as Goma cheese, the Congolese version of Dutch gouda has gained popularity through out the region. Ciara Sutton reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Tyrannosaur Pack-Hunting Theory Aided By New Footprints

Tyrannosaur Pack-Hunting Theory Aided By New Footprints

Newsy (July 24, 2014) A new study claims a set of prehistoric T-Rex footprints supports the theory that the giant predators hunted in packs instead of alone. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile: iPhone Android Web
          Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins