Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Novel antibiotic combinations fight resistance genes

Date:
January 20, 2011
Source:
American Society for Microbiology
Summary:
The combination the antibiotic ceftazidime plus the compound NXL104 is active against bacterial pathogens containing genes that confer resistance to multiple carbapenems, according to new research.

The combination the antibiotic ceftazidime plus the compound NXL104 is active against bacterial pathogens containing genes that confer resistance to multiple carbapenems, according to two papers published in the January 2011 issue of the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Carbapenems are the most powerful penicillin-related antibiotics, often used against difficult bacterial infections that have become resistant to other drugs. The spread of bacteria with carbapenem resistance -- now throughout the world -- is a grave concern, says David Livermore of the Health Protection Agency, London, UK, the principal investigator for one of the papers. There are a variety of genes encoding very different carbapenem-destroying enzymes. Two of the most important of these are KPC -- which is now widespread in the US -- and NDM, which is rapidly spreading internationally from India and Pakistan.

Livermore showed that NLX104 plus ceftazidime is effective in vitro against Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the resistance gene that codes for carbapenemase, but not those with NDM; but that the antibiotic combination NXL104 plus aztreonam is active against all carbapenemase producers, including those with NDM.

"What was most impressive was the ability of the inhibitor combination [NXL104 plus ceftazidime] to treat bacteria that produced three or four beta-lactamases," says Karen Bush of Indiana University, Bloomington, who was not involved in the research.

In the other paper, Andrea Endiamiani and Robert Bonomo of the Louse Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University show in animal models that ceftazidime plus NXL104 is active against Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying carbapenemase, and expressing high levels of resistance to imipenem and ceftazidime. Additionally, adding NXL104 to ceftazidime significantly increased survival of mice with otherwise lethal infection.

"To our knowledge, these are the first studies that show that NXL104 is effective when combined with ceftazidime in animal models," says Bonomo of his research. "This opens the door for more in-depth investigations into this, as well as novel derivatives."

These new antibiotic combinations are critical because the resistance they fight is spreading worldwide. The NDM resistance genes are believed to have originated in India, but they have been found in the United States, in much of Europe, Israel, Hong Kong, Japan, and Kenya, and victims include medical tourists to India and Pakistan, says Livermore. The major carriers of NDM-1, one of the resistance genes, are Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli, but Acinetobacter species are additional hosts, which Livermore says reflects the ease with which plasmids carrying the resistance genes can spread among different bacterial species.

Livermore warns that the combination in India of highly developed medical facilities serving both locals and medical tourists, largely unregulated use of antibiotics, a huge population, and a "creaky infrastructure" that allows circulation of gut bacteria between the sewers and the drinking water creates a "frightening" potential for local spread and international dissemination.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Microbiology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. D. M. Livermore, S. Mushtaq, M. Warner, J. Zhang, S. Maharjan, M. Doumith, N. Woodford. Activities of NXL104 Combinations with Ceftazidime and Aztreonam against Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2010; 55 (1): 390 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00756-10
  2. A. Endimiani, K. M. Hujer, A. M. Hujer, M. E. Pulse, W. J. Weiss, R. A. Bonomo. Evaluation of Ceftazidime and NXL104 in Two Murine Models of Infection Due to KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2010; 55 (1): 82 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01198-10

Cite This Page:

American Society for Microbiology. "Novel antibiotic combinations fight resistance genes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 January 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119191309.htm>.
American Society for Microbiology. (2011, January 20). Novel antibiotic combinations fight resistance genes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119191309.htm
American Society for Microbiology. "Novel antibiotic combinations fight resistance genes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119191309.htm (accessed April 24, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Deadly Fungus Killing Bats, Spreading in US

Deadly Fungus Killing Bats, Spreading in US

AP (Apr. 24, 2014) A disease that has killed more than six million cave-dwelling bats in the United States is on the move and wildlife biologists are worried. White Nose Syndrome, discovered in New York in 2006, has now spread to 25 states. (April 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Monkeys Are Better At Math Than We Thought, Study Shows

Monkeys Are Better At Math Than We Thought, Study Shows

Newsy (Apr. 23, 2014) A Harvard University study suggests monkeys can use symbols to perform basic math calculations. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Leopard Bites Man in India

Raw: Leopard Bites Man in India

AP (Apr. 22, 2014) A leopard caused panic in the city of Chandrapur on Monday when it sprung from the roof of a house and charged at rescue workers. (April 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Iowa College Finds Beauty in Bulldogs

Iowa College Finds Beauty in Bulldogs

AP (Apr. 22, 2014) Drake University hosts 35th annual Beautiful Bulldog Contest. (April 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins