Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

How different strains of parasite infection affect behavior differently

Date:
March 22, 2011
Source:
American Society for Microbiology
Summary:
Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately 25 percent of the human population. The protozoan parasite is noted for altering the behavior of infected hosts. Researchers have found clear differences in the manipulation of host gene expression among the three clonal lineages that predominate in Europe and North America, despite the high level of genetic similarity among them.

Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately 25 percent of the human population. The protozoan parasite is noted for altering the behavior of infected hosts. Jianchun Xiao and colleagues of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine find clear differences in the manipulation of host gene expression among the three clonal lineages that predominate in Europe and North America, "despite the high level of genetic similarity among them," says Xiao. Type I infection largely affects genes related to the central nervous system, while type III mostly alters genes that modulate nucleotide metabolism. Type II infection does not alter expression of a clearly defined set of genes.

The research is published in the March 2011 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity.

Indeed, T. gondii can play its infected rodent hosts like a piano, converting rats' and mice's natural aversion to feline odors into an attraction, presumably to enable the parasite's sexual cycle. T. gondii can reproduce sexually only in cats. Investigations of effects on humans have found an increased risk of traffic accidents, and other reckless behavior, as well as links to hallucinations.

"Toxoplasma infections, at least for mice, are so variable in their severity and heavily dependent on which strain is doing the infecting," says Xiao. "Understanding the differential effects caused by these strains could enable predicting the outcome of infection and point out directions to be explored in future studies to eliminate transmissions or cure disease. If Toxoplasma is linked to schizophrenia, this could lead to new treatments of that disease as well."

"It is noteworthy that we found vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2) was upregulated by all three Toxoplasma strains," says Xiao. VIPR2 "is linked to schizophrenia in some recent publications. Since the tropism of Toxoplasma for brain has been linked with specific behavioral changes and psychosis in humans, this finding will have some fundamental significance for understanding the correlation between Toxoplasma and psychosis."

Type II strains cause 70-80 percent of human cases reported in North America and Europe.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Microbiology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. J. Xiao, L. Jones-Brando, C. C. Talbot, R. H. Yolken. Differential Effects of Three Canonical Toxoplasma Strains on Gene Expression in Human Neuroepithelial Cells. Infection and Immunity, 2010; 79 (3): 1363 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00947-10

Cite This Page:

American Society for Microbiology. "How different strains of parasite infection affect behavior differently." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 March 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110321203437.htm>.
American Society for Microbiology. (2011, March 22). How different strains of parasite infection affect behavior differently. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110321203437.htm
American Society for Microbiology. "How different strains of parasite infection affect behavior differently." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110321203437.htm (accessed August 20, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Awesome New Camouflage Sheet Was Inspired By Octopus Skin

Newsy (Aug. 19, 2014) Scientists have developed a new device that mimics the way octopuses blend in with their surroundings to hide from dangerous predators. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Disquieting Times for Malaysia's 'fish Listeners'

Disquieting Times for Malaysia's 'fish Listeners'

AFP (Aug. 19, 2014) Malaysia's last "fish listeners" -- practitioners of a dying local art of listening underwater to locate their quarry -- try to keep the ancient technique alive in the face of industrial trawling and the depletion of stocks. Duration: 02:29 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
USDA Cracks Down On Imports From Foreign Puppy Mills

USDA Cracks Down On Imports From Foreign Puppy Mills

Newsy (Aug. 18, 2014) New USDA measures to regulate dog imports aim to crack down on buying dogs from overseas puppy mills. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Bone Marrow Drug Regrows Hair In Some Alopecia Patients

Bone Marrow Drug Regrows Hair In Some Alopecia Patients

Newsy (Aug. 18, 2014) Researchers performed an experiment using an FDA-approved drug known as ruxolitinib. They found it to be successful in the majority of patients. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins