Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

For cells, internal stress leads to unique shapes

Date:
April 16, 2014
Source:
California Institute of Technology
Summary:
A cell's unique shape results from an internal tug-of-war: the cell needs to maintain structural integrity while also dynamically responding to the pushes and pulls of mechanical stress, researchers have discovered. The researchers studied the supportive microtubule arrangement in the tissue of pavement cells from the first leaves -- or cotyledons -- of a young Arabidopsis thaliana plant.

By fluorescently marking the cells' microtubules (yellow, top surface of cell; purple, bottom surface of cell), the researchers could image the cell's structural arrangement -- and watch how this arrangement changed over time.
Credit: Arun Sampathkumar/Caltech

From far away, the top of a leaf looks like one seamless surface; however, up close, that smooth exterior is actually made up of a patchwork of cells in a variety of shapes and sizes. Interested in how these cells individually take on their own unique forms, Caltech biologist Elliot Meyerowitz, postdoctoral scholar Arun Sampathkumar, and colleagues sought to pinpoint the shape-controlling factors in pavement cells, which are puzzle-piece-shaped epithelial cells found on the leaves of flowering plants. They found that these unusual shapes were the cell's response to mechanical stress on the microtubule cytoskeleton -- protein tubes that act as a scaffolding inside the cells. These microtubules guide oriented deposition of cell-wall components, thus providing structural support.

The researchers studied this supportive microtubule arrangement in the tissue of pavement cells from the first leaves -- or cotyledons -- of a young Arabidopsis thaliana plant. By fluorescently marking the cells' microtubules (yellow, top surface of cell; purple, bottom surface of cell), the researchers could image the cell's structural arrangement -- and watch how this arrangement changed over time. They could also watch the microtubule modifications that occurred due to changes in the mechanical forces experienced by the cells.

Microtubules strengthen a cell's structure by lining up in the direction of stress or pressure experienced by the cell and guiding the deposition of new cell-wall material, providing a supportive scaffold for the cell's shape. However, Meyerowitz and colleagues found that this internal stress is also influenced by the cell's shape. The result is a feedback loop: the cell's shape influences the microtubule arrangement; this arrangement, in turn, affects the cell's shape, which modulates the microtubules, and so on. Therefore, the unusual shape of the pavement cell represents a state of balance -- an individual cell's tug-of-war to maintain structural integrity while also dynamically responding to the pushes and pulls of mechanical stress.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by California Institute of Technology. The original article was written by Jessica Stoller-Conrad. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. A. Sampathkumar, P. Krupinski, R. Wightman, P. Milani, A. Berquand, A. Boudaoud, O. Hamant, H. Jonsson, E. M. Meyerowitz. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells. eLife, 2014; 3 (0): e01967 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.01967

Cite This Page:

California Institute of Technology. "For cells, internal stress leads to unique shapes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 April 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140416162634.htm>.
California Institute of Technology. (2014, April 16). For cells, internal stress leads to unique shapes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140416162634.htm
California Institute of Technology. "For cells, internal stress leads to unique shapes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140416162634.htm (accessed July 23, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Stone Fruit Listeria Scare Causes Sweeping Recall

Stone Fruit Listeria Scare Causes Sweeping Recall

Newsy (July 22, 2014) The Wawona Packing Company has issued a voluntary recall on the stone fruit it distributes due to a possible Listeria outbreak. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Michigan Plant's Goal: Flower and Die

Michigan Plant's Goal: Flower and Die

AP (July 22, 2014) An 80-year-old agave plant, which is blooming for the first and only time at a University of Michigan conservatory, will die when it's done (July 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Newsy (July 22, 2014) The 83 new genetic markers could open dozens of new avenues for schizophrenia treatment research. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Head Concerned About a Post-Antibiotic Era

CDC Head Concerned About a Post-Antibiotic Era

AP (July 22, 2014) Sounding alarms about the growing threat of antibiotic resistance, CDC Director Tom Frieden warned Tuesday if the global community does not confront the problem soon, the world will be living in a devastating post-antibiotic era. (July 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins