Using hands-free devices to talk, text or send e-mail while driving is distracting and risky, contrary to what many people believe, says a new University of Utah study issued today by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.
"Our research shows that hands-free is not risk-free," says University of Utah psychology Professor David Strayer, lead author of the study, which he conducted for the foundation arm of the nonprofit AAA, formerly known as the American Automobile Association.
"These new, speech-based technologies in the car can overload the driver's attention and impair their ability to drive safely," says Strayer. "An unintended consequence of trying to make driving safer -- by moving to speech-to-text, in-vehicle systems -- may actually overload the driver and make them less safe."
"Just because you can update Facebook while driving doesn't mean that it is safe to do so," he adds. "Don't assume that if your eyes are on the road and your hands are on the wheel that you are unimpaired. If you don't pay attention then you are a potential hazard on the roadway."
In a 2006 study, Strayer first showed talking on a hands-free cell phone was just as distracting as using a hand-held phone while driving, but the message has failed to fully connect with the public, with many people believing hands-free devices are safer. But now, with the backing of the AAA, Strayer hopes people realize they are risking their lives and those of others by using distracting hands-free phone, e-mailing, texting and social media technologies while driving.
Strayer conducted the study with these other members of the University of Utah Department of Psychology: Joel M. Cooper, research assistant professor of psychology; and doctoral students Jonna Turrill, James Coleman and Nate Medeiros-Ward and Francesco Biondi.
New research reveals that voice-activated in-car technologies dangerously undermine driver attention
Hands-free technologies might make it easier for motorists to text, talk on the phone, or even use Facebook while they drive, but new findings from the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety show dangerous mental distractions exist even when drivers keep their hands on the wheel and their eyes on the road.
The research found that as mental workload and distractions increase, reaction time slows, brain function is compromised, drivers scan the road less and miss visual cues, potentially resulting in drivers not seeing items right in front of them including stop signs and pedestrians.
This is the most comprehensive study of its kind to look at the mental distraction of drivers and arms AAA with evidence to appeal to the public to not use these voice-to-text features while their vehicle is in motion.
With a predicted five-fold increase in infotainment systems in new vehicles by 2018, AAA is calling for action as result of this landmark research.
"There is a looming public safety crisis ahead with the future proliferation of these in-vehicle technologies," said AAA President and CEO Robert L. Darbelnet. "It's time to consider limiting new and potentially dangerous mental distractions built into cars, particularly with the common public misperception that hands-free means risk-free."
Cognitive distraction expert David Strayer and his research team at the University of Utah measured brainwaves, eye movement and other metrics to assess what happens to drivers' mental workload when they attempt to do multiple things at once, building upon decades of research in the aerospace and automotive industries. The research included:
-- Cameras mounted inside an instrumented car to track eye and head movement of drivers.
-- A Detection-Response-Task device known as the "DRT" was used to record driver reaction time in response to triggers of red and green lights added to their field of vision.
-- A special electroencephalographic (EEG)-configured skull cap was used to chart participants' brain activity so that researchers could determine mental workload.
Using established research protocols borrowed from aviation psychology and a variety of performance metrics, drivers engaged in common tasks, from listening to an audio book or talking on the phone to listening and responding to voice-activated emails while behind the wheel.
Researchers used the results to rate the levels of mental distraction drivers experienced while performing each of the tasks. Similar to the Saffir-Simpson scale used for hurricanes, the levels of mental distraction are represented on a scale:
-- Tasks such as listening to the radio ranked as a category "1" level of distraction or a minimal risk.
-- Talking on a cell-phone, both handheld and hands-free, resulted in a "2" or a moderate risk.
-- Listening and responding to in-vehicle, voice-activated email features increased mental workload and distraction levels of the drivers to a "3" rating or one of extensive risk.
"These findings reinforce previous research that hands-free is not risk-free," said AAA Foundation President and CEO Peter Kissinger. "Increased mental workload and cognitive distractions can lead to a type of tunnel vision or inattention blindness where motorists don't see potential hazards right in front of them."
Based on this research, AAA urges the automotive and electronics industries to join us in exploring:
-- Limiting use of voice-activated technology to core driving-related activities such as climate control, windshield wipers and cruise control, and to ensure these applications do not lead to increased safety risk due to mental distraction while the car is moving.
-- Disabling certain functionalities of voice-to-text technologies such as using social media or interacting with e-mail and text messages so that they are inoperable while the vehicle is in motion.
-- Educating vehicle owners and mobile device users about the responsible use and safety risks for in-vehicle technologies.
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