Science News
from research organizations

Link between selenium, cancer: New findings

Date:
December 15, 2014
Source:
Newcastle University
Summary:
Higher levels of selenium are associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, according to new research. The study has also shown that Europe has much lower levels of selenium in the blood of citizens than those living in Canada and USA.
Share:
FULL STORY

Higher levels of selenium are associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, according to new research published in the International Journal of Cancer (December).

The study, led jointly by Newcastle University, UK, the International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC-WHO) and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, has shown that in Europe we have much lower levels of selenium in our blood than people living in Canada and USA.

Western Europeans average around 80 micrograms/l -- below the 110-170 micrograms/l reported in people in the North American population.

Assessing selenium status from both the total amount of selenium in the blood and the serum selenoprotein P levels, which reflect the amount of selenium bound up in the carrier protein, the team found that a higher selenium status is significantly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. The results also indicate this could be more relevant for women.

The low selenium levels found in these blood samples are likely to be linked to the low levels of selenium found in European soils and subsequently in the food grown on them.

Now the research team -- involving experts from across Europe -- are calling for more work to be done to look at the potential benefit of supplementing our diets either by adding selenium to our food or directly to the land.

Newcastle University's Professor John Hesketh explains: "Interest in the question of whether selenium intake affects cancer risk has waned a little in recent years because of negative results from a trial in the USA and the reported possible link of selenium to greater risk of diabetes if taken in high doses.

"What our study does is put the debate around selenium and cancer back on the table and highlights the need for further research to understand the benefits, if any, of supplementing diets in regions where selenium is naturally low."

Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health but due to differing soil levels and resultant food content, there is great geographical variation in dietary selenium intake worldwide. As a result, the selenium status of many populations, including those across Europe, is low compared with much of North America.

The study was based on samples collected through EPIC in which dietary and lifestyle information was collected for over 520,000 participants from 23 centres in 10 Western European countries including the UK and their subsequent health monitored over time.

Brazil nuts are one of the best natural sources of selenium, but other foods rich in the mineral include shellfish, red meat, offal and Canadian flour.

In Europe, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death. So should we all start taking supplements?

"Our results support a role for selenium in the prevention of colorectal cancer, but this has to be balanced with caution regarding the potential toxic effects of taking too much," says Professor Hesketh. "The difficulty with selenium is that it's a very narrow window between levels that are sub-optimal and those that would be considered toxic.

"In fact, some studies suggest that as little as 200 micrograms of selenium taken on a regular basis could increase the risk of diabetes.

"What our study shows is a possible link between higher levels of selenium and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer and suggests that increasing selenium intake may reduce the risk of this disease.

"We think this provides a strong case for a Europe-wide study to investigate the impact of supplementing food with selenium."


Story Source:

Materials provided by Newcastle University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. David J. Hughes, Veronika Fedirko, Mazda Jenab, Lutz Schomburg, Catherine Méplan, Heinz Freisling, H.Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Sandra Hybsier, Niels-Peter Becker, Magdalena Czuban, Anne Tjønneland, Malene Outzen, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Antoine Racine, Nadia Bastide, Tilman Kühn, Rudolf Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Antonia Trichopoulou, Pagona Lagiou, Salvatore Panico, Petra H Peeters, Elisabete Weiderpass, Guri Skeie, Engeset Dagrun, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Eva Ardanaz, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Maria Wennberg, Kathryn E Bradbury, Paolo Vineis, Alessio Naccarati, Domenico Palli, Heiner Boeing, Kim Overvad, Miren Dorronsoro, Paula Jakszyn, Amanda J. Cross, Jose Ramón Quirós, Magdalena Stepien, So Yeon Kong, Talita Duarte-Salles, Elio Riboli, John E. Hesketh. Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort. International Journal of Cancer, 2015; 136 (5): 1149 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29071

Cite This Page:

Newcastle University. "Link between selenium, cancer: New findings." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 December 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141215203031.htm>.
Newcastle University. (2014, December 15). Link between selenium, cancer: New findings. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 8, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141215203031.htm
Newcastle University. "Link between selenium, cancer: New findings." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141215203031.htm (accessed May 8, 2017).