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Sex reassignment surgery may be better for transgender women’s health than hormones only

Study investigates metabolic disease risk after receiving only hormone therapy compared to surgery

Date:
November 18, 2015
Source:
American Physiological Society (APS)
Summary:
Transgender women may be at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared with men and women in the general population. New research finds that transgender women who received only hormone therapy had poorer metabolic health than transgender women who underwent sex reassignment surgery in addition to receiving hormone therapy, suggesting that sex reassignment surgery may be metabolically protective.
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Emerging evidence suggests that transgender women have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared with men and women in the general population. A preliminary study to be presented at Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Physiology and Gender compares the risks of metabolic disease of the two therapies that aid the transition from male to female: hormone replacement with female hormones and bilateral orchiectomy, which is the surgical removal of both testicles. The study finds that transgender women who received only hormone therapy had poorer metabolic health than transgender women who underwent sex reassignment surgery in addition to receiving hormone therapy. Moreover, bilateral orchiectomy may be metabolically protective.

The primary indicator of poor metabolic health is insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that allows cells to take up glucose (sugar) from the blood and use that glucose as energy to function. Insulin resistance is almost always present in individuals with fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease results from excess accumulation of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis), leading to inflammation and damage to the liver. Studies have suggested that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can increase the risk of heart disease. Whether insulin resistance causes fatty liver disease, or the reverse, is still under investigation.

Researchers from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles measured insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver of four transgender women who underwent bilateral orchiectomy and were taking female hormones and eight transgender women who were only using female hormones. The researchers found that transgender women only taking hormones exhibited insulin resistance and had greater fat accumulation in the liver. According to lead researcher Michael Nelson, PhD, transgender women with the highest level of testosterone had the poorest metabolic health. The researchers also observed that the amount of fat accumulation in the liver was related to degree of insulin resistance.

The data suggest that fatty liver and insulin resistance are more prevalent in transgender women taking only female hormones. Transgender women who have undergone bilateral orchiectomy appear protected against these conditions, Nelson said.

Nelson wlll present "A pilot study exploring metabolic dysfunction in trans-sexual women: Novel insight from magnetic resonance spectroscopy" as part of the poster session "Metabolism and Diabetes" on Wednesday, Nov. 18, from 1:30 PM to 2:30 PM EST in Rhode/Severn Room of the Crowne Plaza Annapolis Hotel.


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Cite This Page:

American Physiological Society (APS). "Sex reassignment surgery may be better for transgender women’s health than hormones only: Study investigates metabolic disease risk after receiving only hormone therapy compared to surgery." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151118160140.htm>.
American Physiological Society (APS). (2015, November 18). Sex reassignment surgery may be better for transgender women’s health than hormones only: Study investigates metabolic disease risk after receiving only hormone therapy compared to surgery. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 24, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151118160140.htm
American Physiological Society (APS). "Sex reassignment surgery may be better for transgender women’s health than hormones only: Study investigates metabolic disease risk after receiving only hormone therapy compared to surgery." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151118160140.htm (accessed May 24, 2017).

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