Modifying 12 risk factors over a lifetime could delay or prevent 40% of dementia cases, according to an updated report by the Lancet Commission on dementia prevention, intervention and care presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC 2020).
Twenty-eight world-leading dementia experts added three new risk factors in the new report -- excessive alcohol intake and head injury in mid-life and air pollution in later life. These are in addition to nine factors previously identified by the commission in 2017: less education early in life; mid-life hearing loss, hypertension and obesity; and smoking, depression, social isolation, physical inactivity and diabetes later in life (65 and up).
"We are learning that tactics to avoid dementia begin early and continue throughout life, so it's never too early or too late to take action," says commission member and AAIC presenter Lon Schneider, MD, co-director of the USC Alzheimer Disease Research Center's clinical core and professor of psychiatry and the behavioral sciences and neurology at the Keck School of Medicine of USC.
Dementia affects some 50 million people globally, a number that is expected to more than triple by 2050, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where approximately two-thirds of people with dementia live, according to the report. Women are also more likely to develop dementia than men.
However, in certain countries, such as the United States, England and France, the proportion of older people with dementia has fallen, probably in part due to lifestyle changes, demonstrating the possibility of reducing dementia through preventative measures, Schneider says.
Schneider and commission members recommend that policymakers and individuals adopt the following interventions:
The report also advocates for holistic, individualized and evidenced-based care for patients with dementia, who typically have more hospitalizations for conditions that are potentially manageable at home and are at greater risk for COVID-19. In addition, it recommends providing interventions for family caregivers who are at risk for depression and anxiety.
The commission members conducted a thorough investigation of all the best evidence in the field, including systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses and individual studies, to reach their conclusions.
Materials provided by University of Southern California - Health Sciences. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Cite This Page: