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COVID-19-associated strokes link to higher disability and death risk, study finds

Date:
February 7, 2022
Source:
Massachusetts General Hospital
Summary:
During the first wave of the pandemic, patients with COVID-19 who experienced strokes caused by blockage of blood flow to brain tissues were more likely to die or have serious complications compared with non-infected stroke patients, a study finds.
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Among the many hard lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic is that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infections, can affect every organ system in the body, including the brain.

Approximately one third of all patients with COVID-19 may develop neurological complications from infection, and many patients present to hospitals with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or "brain attack," caused by the sudden blockage of blood flow to or within the brain.

As clinicians from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and 29 other stroke centers across the U.S. and Canada now report, patients with COVID-19 who experience AIS appear to be at higher risk for severe disability and death compared with stroke patients treated in the pre-COVID era.

Adam A. Dmytriw, MD, MPH, MSc, an interventional neuroradiology & endovascular neurosurgery fellow at MGH and colleagues looked at records of 230 patients with AIS who were seen at the stroke centers during the first wave of the pandemic, from mid-March through the end of August 2020.

As they reported in a freely available study in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, a little more than half (51%) of all patients had poor outcomes, with 39.1% dying either in hospital or within 30 days of being discharged. In contrast, data from large clinical trials conducted before the pandemic show death rates of 27.6% among all patients with ischemic strokes, and 11.6% among patients with strokes caused by blockage of one or more large blood vessels that supply blood to much of the brain.

"There is an interaction that is still unknown between COVID respiratory disease and stroke, because the rate of poor outcomes or mortality is clearly greater than it would be in someone who had just an acute respiratory distress syndrome or COVID pneumonia, and also worse than someone who would have an equivalently large stroke in the pre-COVID era," Dmytriw says.

The still-growing North American Neurovascular COVID-19 (NAN-C) Consortium was founded by Dmytriw in collaboration with centers in New York and is supervised by Aman B. Patel, MD and Robert W. Regenhardt, MD, PhD at MGH.The hospitals participating in the study represent a broad spectrum of stroke centers with patients from a wide variety of socioeconomic backgrounds and varying access to care, Dmytriw notes.

"This study is something of a post-mortem of how the hardest hit areas responded to the first wave of the pandemic," he says. "Some of the initial reports we had came out of hospitals in more affluent areas such as central Manhattan where people with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to present. Even though Mass General is one such hospital, our goal was to create a consortium including hospitals in outer boroughs of New York, outside of the greater Boston area, within and around Detroit, as well as diverse centers from coast to coast."

"This study revealed how great the mortality was from COVID-associated stroke during the first wave, how high the rates of disability were for many patients, and that these mortality rates and disabilities were greater than those experienced in the first wave in other countries," he says.

The data suggest that patients from less affluent areas may have been at greater risk for serious complications such as stroke because of their inability to carry out protective measures such as social distancing or working at home, Dmytriw says.

The research was internally funded by participating institutions.


Story Source:

Materials provided by Massachusetts General Hospital. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Adam A Dmytriw, Mahmoud Dibas, Kevin Phan, Aslan Efendizade, Johanna Ospel, Clemens Schirmer, Fabio Settecase, Manraj K S Heran, Anna Luisa Kühn, Ajit S Puri, Bijoy K Menon, Sanjeev Sivakumar, Askan Mowla, Daniel Vela-Duarte, Italo Linfante, Guilherme C Dabus, Robert W Regenhardt, Salvatore D'Amato, Joseph A Rosenthal, Alicia Zha, Nafee Talukder, Sunil A Sheth, Ameer E Hassan, Daniel L Cooke, Lester Y Leung, Adel M Malek, Barbara Voetsch, Siddharth Sehgal, Ajay K Wakhloo, Mayank Goyal, Hannah Wu, Jake Cohen, Sherief Ghozy, David Turkel-Parella, Zerwa Farooq, Justin E Vranic, James D Rabinov, Christopher J Stapleton, Ramandeep Minhas, Vinodkumar Velayudhan, Zeshan Ahmed Chaudhry, Andrew Xavier, Maria Bres Bullrich, Sachin Pandey, Luciano A Sposato, Stephen A Johnson, Gaurav Gupta, Priyank Khandelwal, Latisha Ali, David S Liebeskind, Mudassir Farooqui, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Fadi Nahab, Dinesh V Jillella, Karen Chen, Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan, Mohamad Abdalkader, Artem Kaliaev, Thanh N Nguyen, Diogo C Haussen, Raul G Nogueira, Israr Ul Haq, Osama O Zaidat, Emma Sanborn, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Aman B Patel, James E Siegler, Ambooj Tiwari. Acute ischaemic stroke associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in North America. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 2022; jnnp-2021-328354 DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2021-328354

Cite This Page:

Massachusetts General Hospital. "COVID-19-associated strokes link to higher disability and death risk, study finds." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 February 2022. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/02/220207124829.htm>.
Massachusetts General Hospital. (2022, February 7). COVID-19-associated strokes link to higher disability and death risk, study finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 20, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/02/220207124829.htm
Massachusetts General Hospital. "COVID-19-associated strokes link to higher disability and death risk, study finds." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/02/220207124829.htm (accessed April 20, 2024).

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