The spring 2014 allergy season could be the worst yet, or at least that is what you might hear. Every year is coined as being the worst for allergy sufferers, but are spring allergies really on the rise?
"A number of factors, such as weather patterns, predict how intense the spring allergy season will be," said allergist Michael Foggs, MD, president of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI). "While allergies are on the rise, affecting more and more Americans every year, each spring isn't necessarily worse than the last."
According to ACAAI, 23.6 million Americans were diagnosed with hay fever in the last year. The prevalence of allergies is surging upward, with as many as 30 percent of adults and up to 40 percent of children having at least one allergy.
"With more people being affected by seasonal allergies, it may seem like every year is the worst yet for sufferers," said Dr. Foggs. "But in reality, there might just be more people complaining about symptoms."
Following are factors that influence the severity of allergy season, along with some explanations about why more Americans are being diagnosed with allergies.
• Climate Change - Recent studies have shown pollen levels gradually increase every year. Part of the reason for this is due to the changing climate. The warmer temperatures and mild winters cause plants to begin producing and releasing pollen earlier, making the spring allergy season longer. Rain can promote plant and pollen growth, while wind accompanying rainfall can stir pollen and mold into the air, heightening symptoms. The climate is not only responsible for making the allergy season longer and symptoms more bothersome, but may also be partially to blame for the rise in allergy sufferers.
• Priming Effect - A mild winter can trigger an early release of pollen from trees. Once allergy sufferers are exposed to this early pollen, their immune system is primed to react to the allergens, meaning there will be little relief even if temperatures cool down before spring is in full bloom. This "priming effect" can mean heightened symptoms and a longer sneezing season for sufferers.
• Hygiene Hypothesis - This theory suggests that exposure to bacterial by-products from farm animals, and even dogs, in the first few months of life reduces or delays the onset of allergies and asthma. This may, in part, explain the increasing incidence of allergies worldwide in developed countries.
• Allergy: The New Kleenex - Ever hear someone ask for a Kleenex instead of a tissue? Much like some relate all tissues to Kleenex, many also blame runny noses, sneezing and itchy eyes on allergies, even if they haven't been accurately diagnosed. Increased awareness and public education can make it seem like nearly everyone has an allergy or is getting diagnosed with allergies, but it could be more public perception more than you think.
While many allergy sufferers reach for over-the-counter medications to find relief, it is recommended those who may believe they have allergies see a board-certified allergist. An allergist can perform proper testing to accurately diagnose and treat sufferers so the spring sneezing season doesn't have to be bothersome.
"Over-the-counter medications may work for those with mild symptoms, but they can cause a variety of side effects, such as difficulty concentrating, irritability and sleep disturbances," said Dr. Foggs. "For those with moderate to severe symptoms, treatment may go beyond antihistamines and include allergy shots."
Materials provided by American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
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