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Empathy more common in animals than thought

Date:
January 21, 2016
Source:
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Summary:
A new study reveals that prairie voles console loved ones who are feeling stressed -- and it appears that the infamous 'love hormone,' oxytocin, is the underlying mechanism.
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Prairie voles consoling. This material relates to a paper that appeared in the Jan. 22, 2016 issue of Science, published by AAAS. The paper, by James Burkett at Emory University in Atlanta, GA, and colleagues was titled, "Oxytocin-dependent consolation behavior in rodents."
Credit: Zack Johnson

A new study reveals that prairie voles console loved ones who are feeling stressed -- and it appears that the infamous "love hormone," oxytocin, is the underlying mechanism. Until now, consolation behavior has only been documented in a few nonhuman species with high levels of sociality and cognition, such as elephants, dolphins and dogs.

Prairie voles are particularly social rodents, causing them to be the focus of many studies. This led James Burkett and colleagues to explore their potential for empathy-motivated behaviors.

The researchers created an experiment where relatives and known individuals were temporarily isolated from each other, while one was exposed to mild shocks. Upon reunion, the non-stressed prairie voles proceeded to lick the stressed voles sooner and for longer durations, compared to a control scenario where individuals were separated but neither was exposed to a stressor.

Measurements of hormone levels revealed that the family members and friends were distressed when they could not comfort their loved one.

The fact that consoling behavior occurred only between those who were familiar with each other -- including non-kin members -- but not strangers, demonstrates that the behavior is not simply a reaction to aversive cues, the authors note.

Since the oxytocin receptor is associated with empathy in humans, Burkett et al. blocked this neurotransmitter in prairie voles in a series of similar consolation experiments. Blocking oxytocin did not cause family members and friends to alter their self-grooming behavior, yet they did cease consoling each other.

These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of empathy and the evolution of complex empathy-motivated behaviors.


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The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Association for the Advancement of Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. J. P. Burkett, E. Andari, Z. V. Johnson, D. C. Curry, F. B. M. de Waal, L. J. Young. Oxytocin-dependent consolation behavior in rodents. Science, 2016; 351 (6271): 375 DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4785

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American Association for the Advancement of Science. "Empathy more common in animals than thought." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 January 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160121145150.htm>.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2016, January 21). Empathy more common in animals than thought. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2016 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160121145150.htm
American Association for the Advancement of Science. "Empathy more common in animals than thought." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160121145150.htm (accessed July 25, 2016).

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