A recent study by University of Utah Department of City & Metropolitan Planning professor Reid Ewing and his colleagues in Utah, Texas and Louisiana, tested the relationship between urban sprawl and upward mobility for metropolitan areas in the United States. The study was recently published online in the journal Landscape and Urban Planning. The study examined potential pathways through which sprawl may have an effect on mobility and uses mathematical models to account for both direct and indirect effects of sprawl on upward mobility. The direct effects are through access to jobs and the indirect effects are through integration of different income classes.
"The result is that upward mobility is significantly higher in compact areas than sprawling areas," said Ewing. "As the compactness index for a metropolitan area doubles, the likelihood that a child is born into the bottom fifth of national income distribution will reach the top firth by age 30 increases by 41 percent."
Contrary to the general perception, the U.S. has a much more class-bound society than other wealthy countries. "The chance of upward mobility for Americans is just half that of the citizens of Denmark and many other European countries," said Ewing. "The U.S. is much more sprawling in comparison." In addition to other inﬂuences, the built environment may contribute to the low rate of upward mobility in the U.S.
"The Salt Lake City metropolitan area isn't the most sprawling, but it also isn't the most compact," said Ewing. "By discouraging sprawl, we can not only improve air quality and shorten commutes, but we can also promote upward social mobility."
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