New! Sign up for our free email newsletter.
Science News
from research organizations

Scientists gain new insight on how antibodies interact with widespread respiratory virus

Findings could help inform development of vaccines and treatments for two major viruses

Date:
February 22, 2018
Source:
PLOS
Summary:
Scientists have found and characterized the activity of four antibodies produced by the human immune system that target an important protein found in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), according to new research.
Share:
FULL STORY

Scientists have found and characterized the activity of four antibodies produced by the human immune system that target an important protein found in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens.

RSV infects most children worldwide by the age of 2. It usually causes mild cold-like symptoms but can lead to severe conditions, such as pneumonia. Despite the global impact of RSV and its close relative human metapneumoniavirus (hMPV), no licensed vaccines have been developed to combat these viruses.

To help inform vaccine development efforts, Jarrod Mousa in the laboratory of James Crowe of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, and colleagues investigated human antibodies produced by the human immune system in response to RSV infection. Vaccines work by priming the body to unleash a strong antibody response against invading pathogens, so a deep understanding of anti-RSV antibodies could be invaluable.

Previous research has found human antibodies that bind to certain sites on the RSV F protein, inhibiting the virus's ability to fuse to a human cell. Using blood from donors, Mousa and colleagues identified four new antibodies that bind to a part of RSV F protein known as site IV.

One of the antibodies, called 3M3, showed particular potency in disabling RSV, suggesting it might be useful in treatment or prevention efforts. Another antibody, 17E10, displayed the ability to attack and neutralize both RSV and hMPV, which has a very similar F protein.

"We were excited to find such powerful human antibodies that bind to this site of vulnerability on the fusion protein that inhibited both RSV and hMPV" said Crowe. "These new findings teach us how to design better next-generation vaccine antigens for these common viral pathogens."

To investigate the molecular details of the antibody-virus interactions, the researchers systematically altered the sequence of amino acid building blocks of F protein and tested how the changes impacted the interactions. They found that the four antibodies interacted with RSV in diverse ways, with each antibody relying on different amino acids in order to bind successfully.

The research team also used electron microscopy to visualize antibody-virus interactions. This work revealed that 17E10 binds F protein at a much steeper angle than do the other three antibodies. The unusual angle could be directly related to 17E10's ability to neutralize both RSV and hMPV.

These findings highlight structural features of the RSV F protein that could be helpful for vaccine design. Further research into the similarities between RSV and hMPV F proteins could aid efforts to develop a vaccine that simultaneously protects against both viruses.


Story Source:

Materials provided by PLOS. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Jarrod J. Mousa, Elad Binshtein, Stacey Human, Rachel H. Fong, Gabriela Alvarado, Benjamin J. Doranz, Martin L. Moore, Melanie D. Ohi, James E. Crowe. Human antibody recognition of antigenic site IV on Pneumovirus fusion proteins. PLOS Pathogens, 2018; 14 (2): e1006837 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006837

Cite This Page:

PLOS. "Scientists gain new insight on how antibodies interact with widespread respiratory virus." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 February 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180222145013.htm>.
PLOS. (2018, February 22). Scientists gain new insight on how antibodies interact with widespread respiratory virus. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 12, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180222145013.htm
PLOS. "Scientists gain new insight on how antibodies interact with widespread respiratory virus." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180222145013.htm (accessed April 12, 2024).

Explore More

from ScienceDaily

RELATED STORIES