Today's Science News

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

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from universities, journals, and other organizations

Extinctions During Human Era One Thousand Times More Than Before

Sep. 2, 2014 — The gravity of the world's current extinction rate becomes clearer upon knowing what it was before people came along. A new estimate finds that species die off as much as 1,000 times more ... full story

Cockatoos Go to Carpentry School

Sep. 2, 2014 — Goffin's cockatoos can learn how to make and use wooden tools from each other, a new study has found. The discovery is thought to be the first controlled experimental evidence for the social ... full story

The Universal 'Anger Face': Each Element Makes You Look Physically Stronger and More Formidable

Aug. 28, 2014 — The next time you get really mad, take a look in the mirror. See the lowered brow, the thinned lips and the flared nostrils? That's what social scientists call the "anger face," and it ... full story

Electric Current to Brain Boosts Memory: May Help Treat Memory Disorders from Stroke, Alzheimer's, Brain Injury

Aug. 28, 2014 — Stimulating a region in the brain via non-invasive delivery of electrical current using magnetic pulses, called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, improves memory. The discovery opens a new field of ... full story

Home Is Where the Microbes Are

Aug. 28, 2014 — A person's home is their castle, and they populate it with their own subjects: millions and millions of bacteria. Scientists have detailed the microbes that live in houses and apartments. The ... full story

Benefits for Babies Exposed to Two Languages Found in Singaporean Birth Cohort Study

Sep. 2, 2014 — There are advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy, as team of investigators and clinician-scientists in Singapore and internationally have found. The findings reveal a ... full story

Modern Population Boom Traced to Pre-Industrial Roots

Sep. 2, 2014 — The foundation of the human population explosion, commonly attributed to a sudden surge in industrialization and public health during the 18th and 19th centuries, was actually laid as far back as ... full story

Nature's Tiny Engineers: Corals Control Their Environment, Stirring Up Water Eddies to Bring Nutrients

Sep. 1, 2014 — Conventional wisdom has long held that corals -- whose calcium-carbonate skeletons form the foundation of coral reefs -- are passive organisms that rely entirely on ocean currents to deliver ... full story

How Neurons in Bats' Brains Ensure a Safe Flight

Sep. 1, 2014 — Bats emit ultrasound pulses and measure the echoes reflected from their surroundings. They have an extremely flexible internal navigation system that enables them to do this. A study shows that when ... full story

Neurons in Human Skin Perform Advanced Calculations

Sep. 1, 2014 — Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations, previously believed that only the brain could perform. A characteristic of neurons that extend into the skin and record touch, is that they ... full story

Why Sibling Stars Look Alike: Early, Fast Mixing in Star-Birth Clouds

Aug. 31, 2014 — Early, fast, turbulent mixing of gas within giant molecular clouds -- the birthplaces of stars -- means all stars formed from a single cloud bear the same unique chemical 'tag' or 'DNA ... full story

Changing Global Diets Is Vital to Reducing Climate Change, Researchers Say

Aug. 31, 2014 — Healthier diets and reducing food waste are part of a combination of solutions needed to ensure food security and avoid dangerous climate change, say the team behind a new ... full story

New Horizon in Heart Failure: Investigational Drug Poised to Change Cardiology

Aug. 30, 2014 — An investigational new heart failure drug could be poised to change the face of cardiology based on Hot Line results. The new agent, known as LCZ696, has already been granted Fast Track status by the ... full story

New Type of Cell Movement Discovered

Aug. 28, 2014 — Scientists have used an innovative technique to study how cells move in a three-dimensional matrix, similar to the structure of certain tissues, such as the skin. They discovered an entirely new type ... full story

HIV Lessons from the Mississippi Baby

Aug. 28, 2014 — The news in July, 2014 that HIV had returned in a Mississippi toddler after a two-year treatment-free remission dashed the hopes of clinicians, HIV researchers and the public at large tantalized by ... full story

Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Did Neanderthals Play Tic-Tac-Toe?

Did Neanderthals Play Tic-Tac-Toe?

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) — Artwork found in a Gibraltar cave that was possibly done by Neanderthals suggests they may have been smarter than we all thought. Video provided by Newsy
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Experimental Ebola Drug ZMapp Cures Lab Monkeys Of Disease

Experimental Ebola Drug ZMapp Cures Lab Monkeys Of Disease

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) — In a new study, a promising experimental treatment for Ebola managed to cure a group of infected macaque monkeys. Video provided by Newsy
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Electrical Stimulation Boosts Brain Function, Study Says

Electrical Stimulation Boosts Brain Function, Study Says

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) — Researchers found an improvement in memory and learning function in subjects who received electric pulses to their brains. Video provided by Newsy
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Scientists Have Figured Out Why Rocks Move In Death Valley

Scientists Have Figured Out Why Rocks Move In Death Valley

Newsy (Aug. 28, 2014) — The mystery of the moving rocks in Death Valley, California, has finally been solved. Scientists are pointing to a combo of water, ice and wind. Video provided by Newsy
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last updated on 2014-09-03 at 1:03 am EDT

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Household Air Pollution Puts More Than One in Three People Worldwide at Risk of Ill Health, Early Death

Sep. 2, 2014 — Household air pollution, caused by the use of plant-based or coal fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting, is putting nearly three billion people worldwide at risk of ill health and early death, ... full story

Sex Hormone Levels in Blood Linked to Risk of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sep. 2, 2014 — Measuring the levels of sex hormones in patients’ blood may identify patients likely to suffer a sudden cardiac arrest, a heart rhythm disorder that is fatal in 95 percent of ... full story

An Hour of Moderate Exercise a Day May Decrease Heart Failure Risk

Sep. 2, 2014 — Being physically active every day may lower your risk of developing heart failure. The more active you are, the greater your protection from heart failure, studies ... full story

Researchers Examine Effectiveness of Blocking Nerve to Help With Weight Loss

Sep. 2, 2014 — Among patients with morbid obesity, blocking the vagus nerve, which plays a role with appetite and metabolism, did not meet pre-specified efficacy objectives compared to a control group, although the ... full story

Increase Seen in Use of Double Mastectomy, Although Not Associated With Reduced Death

Sep. 2, 2014 — Among women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in California, the percentage undergoing a double mastectomy increased substantially between 1998 and 2011, although this procedure was not ... full story

Comparison of Named Diet Programs Finds Little Difference in Weight Loss Outcomes

Sep. 2, 2014 — In an analysis of data from nearly 50 trials including about 7,300 individuals, significant weight loss was observed with any low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet, with weight loss differences between ... full story

Sabotage as Therapy: Aiming Lupus Antibodies at Vulnerable Cancer Cells

Sep. 2, 2014 — Researchers may have discovered a new way of harnessing lupus antibodies to sabotage cancer cells made vulnerable by deficient DNA repair. The study found that cancer cells with deficient DNA repair ... full story

Understanding, Improving Body's Fight Against Pathogens

Sep. 2, 2014 — The crucial role of two signalling molecules, DOK3 and SHP1, in the development and production of plasma cells has been uncovered by researchers. These discoveries advance the understanding of plasma ... full story

Spinach Extract Decreases Cravings, Aids Weight Loss

Sep. 2, 2014 — A spinach extract containing green leaf membranes called thylakoids decreases hedonic hunger with up to 95 percent -- and increases weight loss with 43 percent, research ... full story

Bar Code Devised for Bacteria That Causes Tuberculosis

Sep. 2, 2014 — Doctors and researchers will be able to easily identify different types of tuberculosis (TB) thanks to a new genetic barcode devised by scientists. To help identify the different origins and map how ... full story

Economic Success Drives Language Extinction

Sep. 2, 2014 — Thriving economies are the biggest factor in the disappearance of minority languages and conservation should focus on the most developed countries where languages are vanishing the fastest, finds a ... full story

Could Poor Stomach Absorption of Drugs Reduce Autism Medications' Effectiveness?

Sep. 2, 2014 — Many children and adults with autism experience gastrointestinal symptoms, research shows, and such symptoms can impact the absorption and availability of medications. "There are a number of ... full story

Rediscovering Mundane Moments Brings Us Unexpected Pleasure

Sep. 2, 2014 — We like to document the exciting and momentous occasions in our lives, but new research suggests there is value in capturing our more mundane, everyday experiences, which can bring us unexpected joy ... full story

Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms Common Among Adolescents Treated for Substance Use Disorder

Sep. 2, 2014 — Although cannabis -- commonly known as marijuana -- is broadly believed to be nonaddictive, a study has found that 40 percent of cannabis-using adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for ... full story

Surprising New Role for Calcium in Sensing Pain

Sep. 2, 2014 — When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away. Researchers have made a surprising discovery in worms about the role of calcium in such pain signaling. They have built a ... full story

Risk of Diabetes in Children, Adolescents Exposed to Antipsychotics: Danish 12-Year Case-Control Study

Sep. 2, 2014 — Children and adolescents pegged with a psychiatric diagnosis had an increased risk of developing diabetes if they were exposed to antipsychotics. Using data from the nationwide Danish registers, a ... full story

Mechanical Ventilation a Key Indicator for Pre-Term Children's Maths Problems

Sep. 2, 2014 — Both the length of time spent in hospital after birth and the use of mechanical ventilation are key indicators of reduced mathematical ability in preterm children, researchers report. Impairments in ... full story

Childhood Trauma Could Lead to Adult Obesity

Sep. 2, 2014 — Being subjected to abuse during childhood entails a markedly increased risk of developing obesity as an adult. This is the conclusion of a meta-analysis carried out on previous studies, which ... full story

Viewers Eat More While Watching Hollywood Action Flick on TV

Sep. 1, 2014 — Television shows filled with action and sound may be bad for your waistline. TV viewers ate more M&Ms, cookies, carrots and grapes while watching an excerpt from a Hollywood action film than those ... full story

Training Your Brain to Prefer Healthy Foods

Sep. 1, 2014 — It may be possible to train the brain to prefer healthy low-calorie foods over unhealthy higher-calorie foods, according to new ... full story

Fruit Consumption Cuts Cardiovascular Disease Risk by Up to 40 Percent

Sep. 1, 2014 — Daily fruit consumption cuts the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by up to 40 percent, according to research. The findings from the seven-year follow-up study of nearly a half million people in ... full story

Wine Only Protects Against Cardiovascular Disease in People Who Exercise, Study Finds

Aug. 31, 2014 — Wine only protects against cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people who exercise, according to results from the a study. Evidence suggesting that mild to moderate consumption of wine protects against ... full story

Drinking Tea Reduces Non-Cardiovascular Mortality by 24 Percent, Study Finds

Aug. 31, 2014 — Drinking tea reduces non-cardiovascular mortality by 24 percent, reveals a study in 131,000 people. "Tea has antioxidants which may provide survival benefits. Tea drinkers also have healthier ... full story

Energy Drinks Can Cause Heart Problems, Study Suggests

Aug. 31, 2014 — Energy drinks can cause heart problems according to research. "So-called 'energy drinks' are popular in dance clubs and during physical exercise, with people sometimes consuming a number of drinks ... full story

Some Women Still Don’t Underststand 'Overdiagnosis' Risk in Breast Screening

Aug. 29, 2014 — A third of women who are given information about the chance of ‘overdiagnosis’ through the breast screening programs may not fully understand the risks involved, according to research. ... full story

Cellphone Addiction Harming Academic Performance Is 'an Increasingly Realistic Possibility'

Aug. 28, 2014 — Women college students spend an average of 10 hours a day on their cellphones, with men college students spending nearly eight hours, according to a study on cellphone activity. "As cellphone ... full story

Second-Hand E-Cig Smoke Compared to Regular Cigarette Smoke

Aug. 28, 2014 — Second-hand e-cig smoke has 10 times less particulate matter than regular cigarette smoke; but higher levels of certain toxic metals, a new study ... full story

Up to 3,000 Times the Bacterial Growth on Hollow-Head Toothbrushes

Aug. 28, 2014 — Solid-head power toothbrushes retain less bacteria compared to hollow-head toothbrushes, according to new ... full story

Indoor Mold Poses Health Risk to Asthma Sufferers

Aug. 28, 2014 — By critically reviewing the findings from 17 studies in eight different countries, the research has found that the presence of several types of mould can lead to breathing problems in asthma ... full story

Men Who Exercise Less More Likely to Wake Up to Urinate

Aug. 28, 2014 — Men who are physically active are at lower risk of nocturia (waking up at night to urinate), according to a study. Nocturia is the most common and bothersome lower urinary tract symptom in men. ... full story

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Cool Calculations for Cold Atoms: New Theory of Universal Three-Body Encounters

Sep. 2, 2014 — Chemical reactions drive the mechanisms of life as well as a million other natural processes on earth. These reactions occur at a wide spectrum of temperatures, from those prevailing at the chilly ... full story

New Synthesis Method May Shape Future of Nanostructures, Clean Energy

Sep. 2, 2014 — A team of physicists has published new nanoscience advances that they and other scientists say make possible new nanostructures and nanotechnologies with huge potential applications ranging from ... full story

Scientists Create Renewable Fossil Fuel Alternative Using Bacteria

Sep. 2, 2014 — Researchers have engineered the harmless gut bacteria E.coli to generate renewable propane. The development is a step towards commercial production of a source of fuel that could one day provide an ... full story

Can a Stack of Computer Servers Survive an Earthquake?

Sep. 2, 2014 — In high-seismic regions, new facilities often are engineered with passive protective systems that provide overall seismic protection. But often, existing facilities are conventional fixed-base ... full story

Nano-Forests to Reveal Secrets of Cells

Sep. 2, 2014 — Vertical nanowires could be used for detailed studies of what happens on the surface of cells. The findings are important for pharmaceuticals research, among other applications. A group of ... full story

Quantum Control of Molecules for Ultra-Fast Computers: Single Laser Stops Molecular Tumbling Motion Instantly

Sep. 2, 2014 — In the quantum world, making the simple atom behave is one thing, but making the more complex molecule behave is another story. Now scientists have figured out an elegant way to stop a molecule from ... full story

Rainfall Monitoring: Mobile Phones Are Taking Over

Sep. 2, 2014 — Agriculture, water resource management, drought and flood warnings, etc.: rainfall monitoring is vital in many areas. But the observation networks remain insufficient. This is not the case for ... full story

Engineers Develop New Sensor to Detect Tiny Individual Nanoparticles

Sep. 1, 2014 — Scientists have developed a new sensor that can detect and count nanoparticles, at sizes as small as 10 nanometers, one at a time. The researchers say the sensor could potentially detect much smaller ... full story

Sniffing-out Smell of Disease in Feces: 'Electronic Nose' for Rapid Detection of Clostridum Difficile Infection

Sep. 1, 2014 — A fast-sensitive "electronic-nose" for sniffing the highly infectious bacteria C-diff, that causes diarrhea, temperature and stomach cramps, has been ... full story

Batteryless Cardiac Pacemaker Is Based on Automatic Wristwatch: Powered by Heart Motion

Aug. 31, 2014 — A new batteryless cardiac pacemaker based on an automatic wristwatch and powered by heart motion has been presented by researchers. The prototype device does not require battery ... full story

Magnetic Substorms May Sometimes Be Driven by Different Process Than Generally Thought

Sep. 2, 2014 — Magnetic substorms, the disruptions in geomagnetic activity that cause brightening of aurora, may sometimes be driven by a different process than generally thought, a new study ... full story

Astrophysicists Report Radioactive Cobalt in Supernova Explosion

Aug. 29, 2014 — Astrophysicists have detected the formation of radioactive cobalt during a supernova explosion, lending credence to a corresponding theory of supernova ... full story

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope Witnesses Asteroid Smashup

Aug. 28, 2014 — NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has spotted an eruption of dust around a young star, possibly the result of a smashup between large asteroids. This type of collision can eventually lead to the ... full story

Researchers Use NASA and Other Data to Look Into the Heart of a Solar Storm

Aug. 28, 2014 — Scientists found that the CME contained a rare piece of dense solar filament material. This filament coupled with an unusually fast speed led to the large amount of solar material ... full story

Astronomy: Radio Telescopes Settle Controversy Over Distance to Pleiades

Aug. 28, 2014 — A worldwide network of radio telescopes measured the distance to the famous star cluster the Pleiades to an accuracy within 1 percent. The result resolved a controversy raised by a satellite's ... full story

Nanodiamonds Are Forever: Did Comet Collision Leave Layer of Nanodiamonds Across Earth?

Aug. 27, 2014 — A comet collision with Earth caused abrupt environmental stress and degradation that contributed to the extinction of most large animal species then inhabiting the Americas, a group of scientists ... full story

Detecting Neutrinos, Physicists Look Into the Heart of the Sun

Aug. 27, 2014 — Using one of the most sensitive neutrino detectors on the planet, physicists have directly detected neutrinos created by the 'keystone' proton-proton fusion process going on at the sun's core for the ... full story

Red Planet's Climate History Uncovered in Unique Martian Meteorite

Aug. 27, 2014 — Was Mars -- now a cold, dry place -- once a warm, wet planet that sustained life? Research underway may one day answer those questions -- and perhaps even help pave the way for future colonization of ... full story

Early Growth of Giant Galaxy, Just 3 Billion Years After the Big Bang, Revealed

Aug. 27, 2014 — The birth of massive galaxies, according to galaxy formation theories, begins with the buildup of a dense, compact core that is ablaze with the glow of millions of newly formed stars. Evidence of ... full story

Orion Rocks! Pebble-Size Particles May Jump-Start Planet Formation

Aug. 27, 2014 — Astronomers have discovered that filaments of star-forming gas near the Orion Nebula may be brimming with pebble-size particles -- planetary building blocks 100 to 1,000 times larger than the dust ... full story

'Face Time' for the Diagnoses of Cardiac Disease

Aug. 29, 2014 — To the careful observer, a person's face has long provided insight into what is going on beneath the surface. Now, with the assistance of a web camera and software algorithms, the face can also ... full story

Breakthrough in Light Sources for New Quantum Technology

Aug. 29, 2014 — One of the most promising technologies for future quantum circuits are photonic circuits, i.e. circuits based on light (photons) instead of electrons (electronic circuits). First, it is necessary to ... full story

Real Tremors, or Drug-Seeking Patient? New App Can Tell

Aug. 29, 2014 — A new smartphone uses data from built-in accelerometer to measure the frequency of alcohol withdrawal tremors. Withdrawal is a potentially fatal condition that is easily treated with benzodiazepine ... full story

Socially-Assistive Robots Help Kids With Autism Learn by Providing Personalized Prompts

Aug. 28, 2014 — Children with autism spectrum disorders showed improved or maintained performance in learning imitative behavior by interacting with humanoid robots that provided graded cueing, an occupational ... full story

A New, Tunable Device for Spintronics

Aug. 28, 2014 — An international team of scientists has developed a tunable spin-charge converter made of GaAs. Spin-charge converters are important devices in spintronics, an electronic which is not only based on ... full story

Doing More With Less: New Technique Uses Fraction of Measurements to Efficiently Find Quantum Wave Functions

Aug. 28, 2014 — Just two years ago, with the advent of a technique called direct measurement, scientists discovered they could reliably determine a system’s wave function by “weakly” measuring one of its ... full story

Electronics: Magnetic Memories on the Right Track

Aug. 27, 2014 — An investigation into switching characteristics provides new criteria for achieving faster switching of magnetic ... full story

Big Data Approach Identifies Europe's Most Dangerous Human, Domestic Animal Pathogens

Aug. 27, 2014 — The pathogens posing the greatest risk to Europe based upon a proxy for impact have been identified by researchers using a 'big data' approach to scientific research. The top risk for both humans and ... full story

New Smartphone App Can Detect Newborn Jaundice in Minutes

Aug. 27, 2014 — Engineers and physicians have developed a smartphone application that checks for jaundice in newborns and can deliver results to parents and pediatricians within minutes. Skin that turns yellow can ... full story

Materials Other Than Silicon for Next Generation Electronic Devices

Aug. 27, 2014 — Silicon has been the most successful material of the 20th century, with major global industries and even a valley named after it. But silicon may be running out of steam for high performance/low ... full story

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Oil Spills and Marine Snow: Changing Microbial Dynamics in the Wake of the Macondo Blowout

Sep. 2, 2014 — Following the oil spill caused by the blowout at the Macondo wellhead in 2010, Gulf of Mexico microbial population dynamics shifted rapidly as numbers of oil degraders quickly increased. In addition, ... full story

Aging Gracefully: Diving Seabirds Shed Light on Declines With Age

Sep. 2, 2014 — Scientists who studied long-lived diving birds, which represent valuable models to examine aging in the wild, found that blood oxygen stores, resting metabolism and thyroid hormone levels all ... full story

Over-the-Counter Pain Reliever May Restore Immune Function in Old Age

Sep. 2, 2014 — New research involving mice suggests that the key to more youthful immune function might already be in your medicine cabinet. Scientists have shown that macrophages from the lungs of old mice had ... full story

Hidden Infection Route of Major Bacterial Pathogen Uncovered

Sep. 2, 2014 — The pattern of infection of the bacterium responsible for causing severe lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis has been uncovered by scientists. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is usually harmless to ... full story

Scientists Sequence Complete Genome of E. Coli Strain Responsible for Food Poisoning

Sep. 2, 2014 — The first complete genome sequencing of a strain of E. coli that is a common cause of outbreaks of food poisoning in the United States has been sequenced by scientists. Although the E. coli strain ... full story

Exceptionally Well Preserved Insect Fossils from the Rhτne Valley Found

Sep. 2, 2014 — In Bavaria, the Tithonian Konservat-Lagerstδtte of lithographic limestone is well known as a result of numerous discoveries of emblematic fossils from that area (for example, Archaeopteryx). Now, ... full story

Asian Camel Crickets Now Common in U.S. Homes

Sep. 2, 2014 — With their long, spiky legs and their propensity for eating anything, including each other, camel crickets are the stuff of nightmares. And now research finds that non-native camel cricket species ... full story

Migrating Birds Sprint in Spring, but Take Things Easy in Autumn

Sep. 2, 2014 — Passerine birds, also known as perching birds, that migrate by night tend to fly faster in spring than they do in autumn to reach their destinations. This seasonal difference in flight speed is ... full story

Cultivating Biodiversity: Sorghum Example

Sep. 2, 2014 — It is difficult to distinguish the human impact on the effects of natural factors on the evolution of crop plants. A Franco-Kenyan research team has managed to do just that for sorghum, one of the ... full story

Growing Mushrooms in Diapers

Sep. 2, 2014 — Mexico is the third largest consumer of disposable diapers globally, which led to a Mexican scientist to design a technology capable of degrading the product materials by the mushroom Pleurotus ... full story

Whose to Blame for Ocean Trash? Giant Garbage Patches Help Redefine Ocean Boundaries

Sep. 2, 2014 — Researchers have created a new model that could help determine what area of the world is to blame for each ocean garbage patch of floating debris – a difficult task for a system as complex and ... full story

Seismic Hazards Reassessed in the Andes

Sep. 2, 2014 — Although being able to predict the date on which the next big earthquake will occur is still some way off becoming a reality, it is now possible to identify the areas where they will occur. ... full story

Likely Near-Simultaneous Earthquakes Complicate Seismic Hazard Planning for Italy

Sep. 1, 2014 — Before the shaking from one earthquake ends, shaking from another might begin, amplifying the effect of ground motion. Such sequences of closely timed, nearly overlapping, consecutive earthquakes ... full story

Plant Life Forms in the Fossil Record: When Did the First Canopy Flowers Appear?

Sep. 1, 2014 — Most plant fossils are isolated organs, making it difficult to reconstruct the type of plant life or its ecosystem structure. Botanists have now used leaf vein density, a trait visible on leaf ... full story

Antarctic Sea Level Rising Faster Than Global Rate

Aug. 31, 2014 — A new study of satellite data from the last 19 years reveals that fresh water from melting glaciers has caused the sea level around the coast of Antarctica to rise by 2cm more than the global average ... full story

Aging Africa: Cosmogenic View of Erosion, Relief Generation, and the Age of Faulting in Southernmost Africa

Aug. 29, 2014 — A cosmogenic view of erosion, relief generation, and the age of faulting in southernmost Africa has been presented by researchers. By measuring beryllium-10 in river sediment samples, they show that ... full story

Hydrogen Powers Important Nitrogen-Transforming Bacteria

Aug. 29, 2014 — Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria can use hydrogen as an alternative source of energy, an international team of researchers has found. The oxidation of hydrogen with oxygen enables their growth independent ... full story

Not All Phytoplankton in the Ocean Need to Take Their Vitamins

Aug. 29, 2014 — Some species of marine phytoplankton, such as the prolific bloomer Emiliania huxleyi, which can grow so big it can be seen from space, can grow without consuming vitamin B1 (thiamine), researchers ... full story

Snails Tell of the Rise and Fall of the Tibetan Plateau

Aug. 29, 2014 — The rise of the Tibetan plateau -- the largest topographic anomaly above sea level on Earth -- is important for both its profound effect on climate and its reflection of continental dynamics. ... full story

Flapping Baby Birds Give Clues to Origin of Flight

Aug. 28, 2014 — The origin of flight is a contentious issue: some argue that tree-climbing dinosaurs learned to fly in order to avoid hard falls. Others favor the story that theropod dinosaurs ran along the ground ... full story

From Silk Tunics to Relics: Development of Early Relic Worship

Sep. 2, 2014 — Archaeologists working with restorers are preserving and studying 4th-century tunics ascribed to St. Ambrose. In the course of examining these valuable silk garments, they have made surprising ... full story

Prehistoric Migrations: DNA Study Unravels the Settlement History of the New World Arctic

Aug. 28, 2014 — A new DNA study unravels the settlement history of the New World Arctic. We know people have lived in the New World Arctic for about 5,000 years. Archaeological evidence clearly shows that a variety ... full story

New Research Reveals How Wild Rabbits Were Genetically Transformed Into Tame Rabbits

Aug. 28, 2014 — The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes ... full story

Ancient Metal Workers Were Not Slaves but Highly Regarded Craftsmen

Aug. 28, 2014 — In the course of ongoing excavations at Timna Valley, archaeologists analyzed remnants of food eaten by copper smelters 3,000 years ago. This analysis indicates that the laborers operating the ... full story

Paleontology: Oldest Representative of a Weird Arthropod Group

Aug. 28, 2014 — Biologists have assigned a number of 435-million-year-old fossils to a new genus of predatory arthropods. These animals lived in shallow marine habitats and were far less eye-catching than related ... full story

Stone-Tipped Spears Lethal, May Indicate Early Cognitive and Social Skills

Aug. 27, 2014 — Attaching a stone tip on to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and ... full story

Bronze Age Wine Cellar Found: Wine Residue, Herbal Additives Found in Palace Cellar Jars

Aug. 27, 2014 — A Bronze Age palace excavation reveals an ancient wine cellar. Wine production, distribution, and consumption are thought to have played a role in the lives of those living in the Mediterranean and ... full story

Shared Biology in Human, Fly and Worm Genomes: Powerful Commonalities in Biological Activity, Regulation

Aug. 27, 2014 — Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings offer insights into ... full story

Evolution Used Similar Molecular Toolkits to Shape Flies, Worms, and Humans

Aug. 27, 2014 — Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related ... full story

Walking Fish Reveal How Our Ancestors Evolved Onto Land

Aug. 27, 2014 — About 400 million years ago a group of fish began exploring land and evolved into tetrapods – today's amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. But just how these ancient fish used their fishy ... full story

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Quality of U.S. Diet Improves, Gap Widens for Quality Between Rich and Poor

Sep. 1, 2014 — The quality of the U.S. diet showed some modest improvement in the last decade in large measure because of a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy trans fats, but the gap in overall diet quality ... full story

Efficacy of New Gene Therapy Approach for Toxin Exposures Shown in Mouse Study

Aug. 29, 2014 — Gene therapy may offer significant advantages in prevention and treatment of botulism exposure over current methods, new research shows. "We envision this treatment approach having a broad range of ... full story

Less Than $200m Would Conserve Precious Atlantic Forest in Brazil, Say Researchers

Aug. 28, 2014 — Brazil could conserve its valuable Atlantic Forest by investing just 0.01 per cent of its annual GDP, according to a new study. Situated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil, it once covered an area of ... full story

Marine Protected Areas Inadequate for Protecting Fish and Ocean Ecology, Study Finds

Aug. 28, 2014 — A new study reports that an expansion of marine protected areas is needed to protect fish species that perform key ecological functions. According to investigators, previous efforts at protecting ... full story

Respiratory Infection Controls Being Used for Ebola Patients Are Unnecessary, May Contribute to Public Panic

Aug. 28, 2014 — Respiratory infection control measures -- which have been adopted by most health agencies to deal with the Ebola epidemic in west Africa -- are unnecessary, and may heighten panic and fear among the ... full story

Females Ignored in Basic Medical Research, Experts Say

Aug. 28, 2014 — Surgical researchers rarely use female animals or female cells in their published studies, researchers say, despite a huge body of evidence showing that sex differences can play a crucial role in ... full story

Study Shows Where on the Planet New Roads Should and Should Not Go

Aug. 28, 2014 — Researchers have created a ‘large-scale zoning plan’ that aims to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human ... full story

Social Class Makes a Difference in How Children Tackle Classroom Problems

Aug. 27, 2014 — Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities ... full story

Self-Deceived Individuals Deceive Others Better

Aug. 27, 2014 — Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and ... full story

Impact of Cultural Diversity in Brain Injury Research

Aug. 27, 2014 — The implications for cultural diversity and cultural competence in brain injury research and rehabilitation has been the focus of recent study. Risk for brain injury is higher among minorities, as is ... full story

Feeling Bad at Work Can Be a Good Thing (and Vice Versa)

Aug. 21, 2014 — Contrary to popular opinion, it can be good to feel bad at work, whilst feeling good in the workplace can also lead to negative outcomes, researchers say. The commonly-held assumption that positivity ... full story

Sleepy College Students Stressed by Jobs

Aug. 20, 2014 — College students are typically more sleep deprived than the rest of us and often ignore the health benefits of adequate slumber, said a researcher who studies the topic. "Sleep is extremely important ... full story

In an Already Stressful Workplace, Great Recession's Health Effects Hard to Find

Aug. 19, 2014 — The Great Recession of 2007-2009 had little direct effect on the health of workers who survived the waves of job cuts that took place during that period, according to a new ... full story

Disconnect Between Parenting and Certain Jobs a Source of Stress

Aug. 16, 2014 — Some working parents are carrying more psychological baggage than others — and the reason has nothing to do with demands on their time and energy. The cause is their ... full story

Shift Workers: Evidence for Sleep-Inducing and Alertness Drugs Is Weak

Aug. 12, 2014 — Shift workers are taking drugs to help them stay awake or get to sleep despite weak evidence for their benefit, according to a new review. The authors of the review found only small numbers of trials ... full story

Study Measures Steep Coastal Costs of China's GDP Growth

Aug. 8, 2014 — Economic reforms declared in 1978 led to a surge of growth in China, but resulting increases in human impact activities are seriously degrading the nation's coastal ecosystems, according to a newly ... full story

Geography Matters: Model Predicts How Local 'Shocks' Influence U.S. Economy

Aug. 6, 2014 — Hurricanes. Foreclosures. Factory shutdowns. How do these local industry 'shocks' influence the country as a whole? A new model measures the power of industry dips and boosts nationwide. Overall, ... full story

All-in-One Energy System Offers Greener Power for Off–grid Homes, Farms and Businesses

July 30, 2014 — An innovative ‘trigeneration’ system fuelled entirely by raw plant oils could have great potential for isolated homes and businesses operating outside grid ... full story

Kill Switch in Cell Phones Could Save Consumers More Than $3.4 Billion Annually

July 29, 2014 — A new study shows consumer savings from the Kill Switch legislation exceed initial projections and now points to well over $3 billion. This savings to consumers comes at the expense of insurance and ... full story

Google Searches May Hold Key to Future Market Crashes, Researchers Find

July 28, 2014 — A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market ... full story

Readers With Dyslexia Have Disrupted Network Connections in the Brain, Map the Circuitry of Dyslexia Shows

Aug. 28, 2014 — Dyslexia, the most commonly diagnosed learning disability in the United States, is a neurological reading disability that occurs when the regions of the brain that process written language don't ... full story

Combining Math and Music to Open New Possibilities

Aug. 25, 2014 — The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent ... full story

ADHD Children Make Poor Decisions Due to Less Differentiated Learning Processes

Aug. 21, 2014 — Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among school children. Pupils with ADHD often make poorer decisions than their unaffected classmates. ... full story

Children's Drawings Indicate Later Intelligence, Study Shows

Aug. 18, 2014 — How 4-year-old children draw pictures of a child is an indicator of intelligence at age 14, according to a new study. The researchers studied 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical twins and ... full story

How Children's Brains Memorize Math Facts

Aug. 17, 2014 — As children learn basic arithmetic, they gradually switch from solving problems by counting on their fingers to pulling facts from memory. The shift comes more easily for some kids than for others, ... full story

Expecting to Teach Enhances Learning, Recall

Aug. 8, 2014 — People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that ... full story

Musical Training Offsets Some Academic Achievement Gaps, Research Says

Aug. 8, 2014 — Learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills, according to research. The findings, which involved hundreds of kids ... full story

New Insights Into How Young and Developing Readers Make Sense of Words

Aug. 7, 2014 — Skilled readers are often able to make sense of words suffering from 'typos' and jumbled up letter orders as long as the beginning and end letters of the words are ... full story

Video-Game Playing for Less Than an Hour a Day Is Linked With Better-Adjusted Children, Study Finds

Aug. 4, 2014 — A new study suggests video game-playing for less than an hour a day is linked with better-adjusted children and teenagers. The research found that young people who indulged in a little video ... full story

Removing Vending Machines from Schools Is Not Enough to Reduce Soda Consumption

Aug. 1, 2014 — Banning vending machines from schools can actually increase soda and fast food consumption among students if it’s the only school food policy change implemented, according to new ... full story

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